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Amphisbaena nana PEREZ & BORGES-MARTINS, 2019

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAmphisbaena nana PEREZ & BORGES-MARTINS 2019
Amphisbaena munoai — GANS 1966: 243 (in part)
Amphisbaena munoai — PEREZ et al., 2012: 5 (in part) 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul)

Type locality: São Jerônimo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29° 57’ S, 51° 43’ W).  
TypesHolotype: UFRGS 5705*. Collected by Marcio Borges-Martins and team, on 3 July 2010 (Fig. 7).
Paratypes: UFRGS 5511*, 5512*, 5513*, 5614, 5616, 5704 and 5706*, São Jerônimo, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Specimens indicated with an asterisk where included on genetic analysis. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Amphisbaena nana sp. nov. is distinguished from other species of Amphisbaena by the following character combination: (1) rounded head; (2) smooth segments at the tip of the tail; (3) four pre-cloacal pores; (4) 195-216 body annuli; (5) caudal autotomy seen externally from 7-10 caudal anulli; (6) presence of postmalar shields; (7) parental shields differentiated from body shields; (8) light brown coloration with uniform shield pigmentation.

Comparison: Amphisbaena nana sp. nov. is distinguished from A. albocingulata by presenting the post-malar row (vs. post-malar row absent). Differs from A. hogei by presenting 195-216 body annuli (vs. 177-191 body annuli). It differs from A. heterozonata by bearing 18-22 caudal annuli (vs. 13-17 caudal annuli). It differs from A. nigricauda by having a uniform coloration on the tail tip (vs. a darker coloration on tail tip). Differs from A. trachura by presenting smooth scales on tail tip (vs. tuberculate scales). It differs from A. darwinii by presenting a slender body and small SVL in adults, 103-152mm (vs. sturdy body with long SVL in adults, 150-304 mm). Differs from A. prunicolor by presenting a uniform coloration pattern (vs. checkered coloration pattern). It differs from A. munoai by presenting a short frontal shield, with similar size of parietal shields, varying between 18.7 and 28.7% (x = 23.9 ± 2.6) of head length (HL) (vs. 25.9-35.8; x = 27.7 ± 1.0, with larger size than parietal shields) and 3.6% of 16S rDNA mean genetic distance. Differs from A. tiaraju sp. nov. by presenting a smaller frontal shield, varying between 18.7 and 28.7% (x = 24.5 ± 2.8) of (HL) (vs. 28.5-34.2%; x = 30.6 ± 1.9) and by 6.9% of 16S rDNA mean genetic distance. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet nana is an adjective derived from the Latin word nanus, meaning ‘dwarf’, and is a reference to the small size of this species, the smallest within the Amphisbaena darwinii-Group. 
  • Gans, C. 1966. Studies on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 3. The small species from southern South America commonly identified as Amphisbaena darwini. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 134: 185-260. - get paper here
  • Perez, R. & Borges-Martins, M. 2019. Integrative taxonomy of small worm lizards from Southern South America, with description of three new species (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Zool. Anz. 283: 124–141 - get paper here
  • PEREZ, RENATA; SÍRIA RIBEIRO & MÁRCIO BORGES-MARTINS 2012. Reappraisal of the taxonomic status of Amphisbaena prunicolor (Cope 1885) and Amphisbaena albocingulata Boettger 1885 (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 3550: 1–25 - get paper here
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