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Anolis barahonae WILLIAMS, 1962

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis barahonae barahonae WILLIAMS 1962
Anolis barahonae albocellatus SCHWARTZ 1974
Anolis barahonae ininquinatus CULLOM & SCHWARTZ 1980
Anolis barahonae mulitus CULLOM & SCHWARTZ 1980 
Common NamesE: Baoruco Giant Anole, Barahona Anole 
SynonymAnolis ricordii barahonae WILLIAMS 1962: 8
Anolis barahonae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 226
Anolis barahonae — VAN BEEST & HABERHAM 2003
Xiphosurus barahonae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus barahonae — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis barahonae barahonae WILLIAMS 1962
Xiphosurus barahonae barahonae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus barahonae barahonae — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis barahonae albocellatus SCHWARTZ, 1974
Anolis barahonae albocellatus SCHWARTZ 1974: 114
Semiurus barahonae albocellatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Xiphosurus barahonae albocellatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus barahonae albocellatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis barahonae ininquinatus CULLOM & SCHWARTZ, 1980
Xiphosurus barahonae imiquinatus [sic] — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus barahonae imiquinatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 (in error)

Anolis barahonae mulitus CULLOM and SCHWARTZ, 1980
Xiphosurus barahonae mulitus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Xiphosurus barahonae mulitus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (SE Haiti, SW Dominican Republic)

barahonae: Sierra de Baoruco, Repûblica Dominicana. Altitudinal distribution above 2600 ft. Type locality: Polo, Valle de Polo, Barahona Province, República Dominicana.

albocellatus: Peninsula de Barahona, República Dominicana.

ininquinatus: eastern coast of Peninsula de Barahona; intergrades with A. b. barahonae on northeast slope of Sierra de Baoruco.

mulitus: República Dominicana, along Dominico-Haitian border on Peninsula de Barahona.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Material from Enriquillo and between Enriquillo and Oviedo is unassigned subspecifically.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 43819
Holotype: MCZ 125611 [albocellatus]
Holotype: MCZ 132388 [ininquinatus]
Holotype: MCZ 132389 [mulitus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 160 mm, in females to 148 mm); dewlap present in both sexes; snout scales between second canthals 2-5 (mode 4); 2-8 (mode 6) loreal rows; scales between supraorbitals 1-4 (mode 2); 3=5 (mode 4) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; dorsals generally small (15-34 in snout-eye distance); ventral scales relatively small (17-31 in snout-eye distance); nuchal crest scales in both sexes rarely high, usually moderate to low, dorsal body crest scales rarely moderate, usually low; subocular scales rarely in contact with supralabials. Dorsal body color basically lichenate gray-green, olivaceous, tan, or gray, with browns and black giving a blotched effect (also in juveniles); at times with 3-4 yellowish dorsal crossbars or their remnants (2 subspecies), or with faintly bluish white, dark-edged ocelli (1 subspecies); venter pale greenish tan to cream, or tan or white with brown or gray mottling; dewlap (males) pale yellow, yellow (white basally), yellow-orange, deep orange, pale yellow with pink border, to peach, (females) pale yellow (at times suffused with gray), to pale peach; pale subocular crescent absent in adults of most subspecies but indicated in juveniles by a pale subocular spot (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 226). 
CommentIllustrations: Cullom and Schwartz, 1980.

Species group: Xiphosurus cuvieri species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Allen, Amber L.; Albright, Melissa K.; Powell, Robert 1994. Notes on the reproductive biology of Anolis barahonae (Squamata: Polychrotidae) a crown-dwelling giant anole from Hispaniola. Herpetological Natural History 2 (2): 93-95
  • Bowersox, S. R. & S. Calderon & R. Powell & J. Parmerlee & D. D. Smith & A. Lathrop 1994. Nahrung eines Riesenanolis, Anolis barahonae, von Hispaniola, mit einer Zusammenfassung des Nahrungsspektrums westindischer Riesenanolis-Arten. Salamandra 30 (2): 155-160 - get paper here
  • Calderon S.; Bowersox S R.; Parmerlee J S Jr. & Powell R. 1995. Anolis barahonae. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (609): 1-3. - get paper here
  • Cullom, S.J., and Schwartz, A. 1980. Variation in the Hispaniolan giant anole Anolis barahonae with the description of two new subspecies. Herpetologica 36 (1): 93-98. - get paper here
  • Mahler, D. Luke; Shea M. Lambert, Anthony J. Geneva, Julienne Ng, S. Blair Hedges, Jonathan B. Losos, and Richard E. Glor 2016. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations. The American Naturalist, DOI: 10.1086/687566 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert 1974. An analysis of variation in the Hispaniolan giant anole, Anolis ricordi Duméril and Bibron. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 146 (2): 86-146 - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P. & Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruiksaanwijzing voor een van de meest interssante gropen terrariumdiern:Anolissen ´Deel II: het terrarium. Lacerta 61 (4): 144-153 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. 1962. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 6. The giant anoles. Breviora (155):1-15 - get paper here
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