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Anolis chamaeleonides DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Short-bearded Anole 
SynonymAnolis chamaeleonides DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 168
Chamaeolis [sic] fernandina COCTEAU 1838: 90
Pseudochamaeleon cocteaui FITZINGER 1843: 63
Chamaeleolis fernandina — GRAY 1845: 196
Chamaeleolis chamaeleontides — BOULENGER 1885: 7
Chamaeleolis chamaeleontides — BARBOUR & RAMSDEN 1919: 128
Chamaeleolis chamaeleonides — BARBOUR 1935: 165
Chamaeleolis chamaeleonides — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 381
Anolis chamaeleonides — HASS et al 1993
Chamaeleolis chamaeleonides — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 165
Chamaeleolis chamaeleonides — KARCH 2002
Xiphosurus chamaeleonides — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis (Chamaeleolis) chamaeleonides — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Xiphosurus chamaeleonides — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCuba, Isla de la Juventud

Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Garrido and Schwartz, 1968 a, to vicinity of La Habana, La Habana Province, Cuba.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1004 (by monotypy; fide Brygoo 1989). MNHN-RA 2467, MNHN-RA 2467A and MNHN-RA 2467B sometimers considered as 3 additional syntypes; lectotype designated MNHN-RA 2467B 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 177 mm, in females to 172 mm); tail longer than SVL in adults; paramedian gular scales small, truncate, short, conical to pyramidal; supralabials separated from circumorbital ring by 1-2 (strongly modally 1) rows of scales; totalloreals 30-87; lateral dorsals subcircular to irregular, with many smaller interstitial scales; ventrals small to tiny (42-83 in snout-eye distance); zone of transition between large lateral scales and ventrals relatively gradual; scales on lower jaw below angle of jaw heavily rugose; posterior expanded portion of casque with relatively large scales. Dorsum light gray, grayish, or brown with black spots, vermiculations, and dots, or grayish beige with a series of black vermiculations over entire body, most noticeable on sides of venter and along sides of dorsal crest; sides often with purplish or violet spots; venter pure white with black to gray spots, or whitish with leopard-like spots along junction between laterals and ventrals, under hindlimbs, region of vent, throat, and anterior portion of dewlap, or sandy white with dirty yellow spots as far anterior as throat; casque spotted with black dots (more widely separated black dots on sides of face), or reticulated or spotted with blackish dots or spots; fused eyelids beige to grayish with about 6 radiating lines; at times with a black spot above axilla; tongue inky blue posteriorly and anteriorly, with a yellowish, transverse area between base and blue-black tip; hindlimbs greenish gray; dewlap present in both sexes, gray basally, edges with very pale peach (male), brownish violet basally, pale pink distally (female), dull, whitish pink crossed by about 6 diffuse, whitish bars, spotted with brownish or yellowish leopard-like spots (female); tail with 7 broad, purplish to violet bands (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 381). 
CommentSynonymy: The genus Chamaeleolis was synonymized within Anolis by Hass et al. (1993). Chamaeolis recently was proposed as the correct spelling of the generic name for this taxon (Frost and Etheridge, 1989), however, this spelling previously was investigated and was found to be incorrect (Garrido and Schwartz, 1968).

Species group: Xiphosurus chamaeleonides species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Barbour, T. 1935. A second list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Zoologica 19 (3): 77-141 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213. - get paper here
  • Bezaz, Y. I., Hadjab, R., Khammar, H., Redjaimia, L., & Saheb, M. 2021. First data on the diversity of the herpetofauna of the Oum El Bouaghi Region (Northeast of Algeria). Ecol. Env. & Cons. 27 (3): 983-989
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cocteau, J.-T. and G. Bibron 1838. Reptiles, in R. de la Sagra. Historia Física, Política y Natural de la Isla de Cuba, Tomo IV. Arthus Bertrand, Paris, 142 pp. [1838-1843 - index on page 143; but note that BHL has 1840 on the cover page of vol. IV] - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Frost,D.R. & Etheridge,R.E. 1989. A Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomy of Iguanian Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 81: 1-62 - get paper here
  • Garrido,O.H. & Schwartz,A. 1968. Cuban lizards of the genus Chamaeleolis. Quarterly J. Florida Acad. Sci. 30: 197-220 [1967] - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Haberham, Z.L. 2003. De Onechte Kameleon, Anolis (Chamaeleolis) chamaeleonides. Lacerta 61 (6): 201-202 - get paper here
  • Hass, C. A., S. B. Hedges, and L. R. Maxson. 1993. Molecular insights into the relationships and biogeography of West Indian anoline lizards. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 21: 97-114. - get paper here
  • Holáňová V., Rehák I. & Frynta D. 2012. Anolis sierramaestrae sp. nov. (Squamata: Polychrotidae) of the “chamaeleolis” species group from Eastern Cuba. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 76 (1–2): 45–52. - get paper here
  • Karch, P. 2002. Bemerkungen zur Gattung Chamaeleolis. Iguana Rundschreiben 15 (2): 11-12
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
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