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Anolis chlorocyanus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Tiburon Green Anole, Hispaniolan green anole, Jeremie Anole 
SynonymAnolis chloro-cyanus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 117
Anolis (Ctenocercus) coelestinus COPE 1862: 177
Anolis bullaris — GRAY 1845 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — BOULENGER 1885 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — BARBOUR 1914 (in part.)
Anolis latirostris SCHMIDT 1919 (fide THOMAS 1966)
Anolis chloro-cyanus — COCHRAN 1941
Anolis coelestinus — COCHRAN 1941
Anolis coelestinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 238
Anolis coelestinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ameiva coelestinus — GEIßLER 2008 (in error)
Deiroptyx coelestina — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Deiroptyx coelestina coelestina — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis coelestinus — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016
Deiroptyx coelestina — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Anolis chlorocyanus — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2020 
DistributionHispaniola (S Haiti: W Tiburón Peninsula)

Type locality: Near Jérémie, Département de la Grand'Anse, Haiti.  
ReproductionGarcia et al. (1994) documented hybridization between A. chlorocyanus and A. coelestinus. 
TypesLectotype: MCZ 3347; others unlocated
Holotype: AMNH 12598, Navassa Island (in error) [latirostris] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. demissus and A. pecuarius and two species described below by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) a white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (3) hind legs relatively short (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) ventral scales at midbody usually faintly to distinctly keeled; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0. Among the Anolis species treated in this contribution, A. coelestinus is most similar to A. demissus, A. pecuarius, and two species described below. Anolis coelestinus differs from A. demissus and A. pecuarius by (1) usually having a white subocular stripe and a white streak on lateral neck and shoulder (vs. such a pattern usually not present in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); a bluish green to yellowish green male dewlap in life (vs. yellowish brown, dark gray, or greenish gray in A. demissus and A. pecuarius); and (3) by usually having a pattern of white to pale green vertical bars or blotches on flanks (vs. usually lacking any pattern on flanks in A. demissus and A. pecuarius). Anolis coelestinus further differs from A. demissus by usually having 4 supracaudals per caudal segment, either throughout all discernable segments or having the reduction from 5 to 4 supracaudals per segment before the 5th segment (vs. 5 supracaudals per caudal segment throughout all discernable segments in A. demissus) and by usually having weakly to distinctly keeled ventral scales (vs. usually smooth in A. demissus). Anolis coelestinus differs from A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, and A. peynadoi by having (1) a yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap bicolored with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales); (2) and a blue iris in life (vs. brown to reddish brown). Anolis coelestinus differs further from A. cyanostictus (1) by having a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak in A. cyanostictus) and (2) by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus). Anolis coelestinus differs from A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. coelestinus and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species [KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 18]. 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 18 and Köhler & Hedges 2020. Boulenger (1885: 44) listed A. coelestinus as a synonym of A. chlorocyanus, a view shared by Barbour (1914: 295). Barbour (1930: 119) resurrected A. coelestinus from the synonymy of A. chlorocyanus, stating that the latter has a ‘greater number of loreal rows’ and ‘smaller scales on the back, very fine scales on the dewlap, a different habit and coloration.’ Since that time this two-species concept and the respective assignments of names have remained unchanged (e.g. Mertens, 1939; Williams, 1965; Ramos & Powell, 2001) -- until KÖHLER & HEDGES 2020 (and the ICZN) changed the name of coelestinus to chlorocyanus, that is.

Similar species: Anolis coelestinus, A. viridius, A. chlorodius, A. demissus, A. pecuarius.

Subspecies: Anolis coelestinus demissus SCHWARTZ 1969 and Anolis coelestinus pecuarius SCHWARTZ 1969 have been elevated to full species status by KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016. Other populations of coelestinus have been described as new species, A. viridius and A. chlorodius.

Illustrations: Schmidt, 1921 (as Anolis latirostris); Cochran, 1941; Williams, 1965; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 22 (Fig. 10).

Species group: Deiroptyx chlorocyana species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
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  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
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  • Geißler, L. 2008. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Halbinsel Barahona, Dominikanische Republik. Elaphe 16 (1): 48-52
  • Grygier, Mark J. 2020. Comment on Anolis chlorocyanus Dumeril & Bibron, 1837 and Anolis coelestinus Cope, 1862 (Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of the specific names and designation of a neotype for A. chlorocyanus (Case 3672; see BZN 72: 45–49) Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 72(2): 155-156 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB. 2010. Anolis coelestinus (Southern Green Anole). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 7: 1 - get paper here
  • ICZN 2020. Opinion 2449 (Case 3672) – Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 and Anolis coelestinus Cope, 1862 (Reptilia, Squamata): conservation of usage of specific names by designation of a neotype for the former species not approved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 77: 52 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Köhler G, Hedges SB 2020. A replacement name for the Hispaniolan anole formerly referred to as Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron, 1837. Caribbean Herpetology, 70, 1–3 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
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  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
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