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Anolis cuprinus SMITH, 1964

IUCN Red List - Anolis cuprinus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Copper Anole, Chiapas Anole
S: Abaniquillo de Chiapas 
SynonymAnolis cuprinus SMITH 1964
Anolis breedlovei SMITH & PAULSON 1968
Norops breedlovei — GUYER & SAVAGE 1986
Norops cuprinus — GUYER & SAVAGE 1986
Norops cuprinus — LINER 1994
Norops breedlovei — LINER 1994
Norops breedlovei — KÖHLER 2000: 62
Norops cuprinus — KÖHLER 2000: 62
Norops cuprinus — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops breedlovei — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis breedlovei — LINER 2007
Anolis cuprinus — LINER 2007
Norops breedlovei — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops cuprinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops cuprinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionSE Mexico (Oaxaca)

Type locality: Mexico: Zanatepec, Oaxaca

breedlovei: SE Mexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas); Type locality: Mexico: on Cerro Azul, ca. 30 km SE Santa Maria Chimalapa, Oaxaca.  
TypesHolotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 52959, adult male; T. MacDougall; January 11, 1963.
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 48671, T. MacDougall; April 2, 1960 [breedlovei] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A member of the cupreus group of Anolis, having rather weakly although distinctly keeled ventrals, finger pads covering two rows of ventrals, 4-6 rows of somewhat enlarged dorsals gradually merging with laterals, largest dorsals % size of ventrals, a bright blood-red dewlap; differing from cupreus in having an interparietal smaller than ear opening, rather thick head scales, a very deep frontal concavity, dewlap not edged with purple, size larger (53 mm. snout-vent).

Description. Dorsal head scales mostly unicarinate, a very few bicarinate; frontal ridges moderately conspicuous, but concavity between especially pronounced; head scales relatively large, 7 between rear canthals, 2-3 across middle of frontal concavity; 10 scales between nostrils, 8 bordering rostral between supralabials; scales in supraorbital semicircles about as broad as long, except 2, twice as large, on each side opposite anterior end of orbits; 2 rows of scales between supraorbital semicircles, and 2 between semi-circles and interparietal; latter (1.5 x 1.0 mm.) distinctly smaller than ear opening (2.0 x 1.0 mm.); enlarged supraoculars in two rows, mostly contacting semicircles, 7-9 in number; 4 canthals to level of nasal disk; 6 rows of loreals; 1 row of scales between sub-oculars and labials; 6 supralabials to below middle of eye.
Dorsals keeled, 5-6 times as large as granular laterals, only slightly smaller than ventrals, median 2-6 rows enlarged and sub-equal, gradually merging with laterals, 30 in head length at midline in rear trunk region; ventrals distinctly but weakly keeled, 37 in head length at rear midbelly; dewlap reaching posterior to axillary level only about one-sixth distance from axilla to groin; no enlarged postanals; tail slightly compressed, scale whorls poorly defined, with one median dorsal row of scales; no crest on body or tail.
Anterior scales of thigh, and dorsal scales of upper-foreleg, somewhat larger than dorsals; 15 scales under phalanges 2 and 3 of 4th toe; a shallow but distinct axillary pocket.
Dewlap bright red, no differentiation of color at margin or center; dorsal surface brownish slate; sides darker, with 5 large scallops invading dorsal region; some evidence of narrow V-shaped bands across back; limbs barred rather prominently; ventral surfaces dark-pigmented, over chin, throat (excluding fan), tail and legs.
Snout to posterior border of ear, 14.5 mm.; dorsal head width at middle of orbit, 12.25 mm.; head depth at middle of orbit 7 mm.; snout to vent, 53 mm.; tail, 112 mm.; hind leg 46.5 mm. to tip of 4th toe; shank 14.5 mm.; axilla to groin, 20 mm.; foreleg 23 mm.

Comparisons. This specimen represents a species which seems to be the northern member of the cupreus group, since the ventral and dorsal scales in cupreus and cuprinus are essentially the same. Both occur on Pacific slopes, and both have a bright red dewlap. However, the type of cuprinus is, at 53 mm. S-V, 8 mm. larger than the largest male reported by Stuart (1955:16) from Guatemala, and 11 or 12 mm. larger than the largest specimens from El Salvador and Costa Rica reported by Mertens (1952:41) and Taylor (1956: 110). The interparietal is also distinctly smaller than the ear opening (larger in cupreus), the dewlap reaches only mid-thorax (mid-abdomen in cupreus), the dewlap lacks the orange margin described by Stuart (loc. cit.) and Taylor (1956:113) for cupreus, and at 5,000 ft. the elevation is somewhat above the maximum
(1,400 m.) recorded for cupreus (Stuart, loc. cit.). 
CommentSynonymy: partly after NIETO MONTES DE OCA et al. 2013. Nieto-Montes de Oca (1994) synonymized A. breedlovei with A. cuprinus.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Fitch H S 1978. Two new anoles (Reptilia: Iguanidae) from Oaxaca with comments on other Mexican species. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. (No. 20) 1978: 1-15
  • Fitch, H. S. 1976. Sexual size difference in the mainland anoles. Occ. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 50:21 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitch, H. S., & HILLIS, D. M. 1984. The Anolis dewlap: interspecific variability and morphological associations with habitat. Copeia 1984 (2): 315-323 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther and Eric N. Smith 2008. A New Species of Anole of the Norops schiedei group from Western Guatemala (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Herpetologica 64 (2): 216-223 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R. Cruz G A. Holm P A. 1993. A new species of cloud forest lizard of the Norops schiedei group (Sauria: Polychrotidae) from northern Honduras. Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 386-392 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • NIETO MONTES DE OCA, ADRIÁN, STEVEN POE, SIMON SCARPETTA, LEVI GRAY & CARL S. LIEB 2013. Synonyms for some species of Mexican anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3637 (4): 484–492 - get paper here
  • Nieto-Montes de Oca, A. 1994. A taxonomic review of the Anolis schiedii group (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas University, Lawrence, 1–292
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. 1964. A new Anolis from Oaxaca, México. Herpetologica 20: 31-33. - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. & Paulson,D.R. 1968. A new lizard of the schiedi group of Anolis from Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 13: 353-372 - get paper here
  • Wilson L D; McCranie J R 1982. A new cloud forest Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the schiedei group from Honduras. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 85(3) 1982: 133-141 - get paper here
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