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Anolis evermanni STEJNEGER, 1904

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesEmerald anole, Evermann's Anole, Small Green Anole

Spanish: Lagartijo verde 
SynonymAnolis evermanni STEJNEGER 1904: 647
Anolis evermanni — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 261
Anolis evermanni — BRANDLEY & DE QUEIROZ 2004
Ctenonotus evermanni — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis evermani — KLACZKO et al. 2015 (in error)
Ctenonotus evermanni — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPuerto Rico

Type locality: Catalina Plantation, east slope of El Yunque, Bosque Experimental de Luquillo, Puerto Rico.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 26855. 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 70 mm, in females to 45 mm); 4-6
(mode 5) rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 0-1; 2-4 (mode 3) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 2-4 (mode 3) postrostrals; 5-7 (mode 6) postmentals; suboculars keeled, in broad contact with supralabials; dorsals granular or tuberculate, juxtaposed, slightly larger than laterals, middorsal series not enlarged; ventrals rather small, slightly imbricate, cycloid, smooth; throat scales granular; supradigital scales multicarinate; tail slightly compressed, verticillate, 8-9 vertical rows/verticil, 4-5 enlarged middorsals/verticil, giving serrate effect. Dorsum: (1) bright emerald-green without markings, (2) wax-yellow or dusky olive-yellow with numerous dusky spots and marblings on body and crossbars on tail, or (3) velvety, very dark brown (almost black); venter pale, glaucous green to grayish green with dark suffusions; throat wax-yellow; eyelids flesh-colored or pink-edged; juveniles gray-green above with fine pattern of pale green markings that form margins to heavier dark brown markings, pale green flank stripe, venter yellowish, slightly green; iris dark blue with dark, steel-blue pupillary ring; dewlap yellow (wax or gamboge) to dark green with brown scales (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 261). 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Rivero, 1978; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.
Ecomorph class: trunk-crown.

Species group: Ctenonotus cristatellus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932), a school-teacher (1876-1886) and a student at Indiana University, where he was awarded a doctorate (1891). He worked for the Bureau of Fishes in Washington (1891-1914) and lectured on zoology at Cornell (1900-1903), Yale (1903-1906), and later, Stanford, where he became Director of the Museum, California Academy of Sciences (1914). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Brandley, M.C. & De Queiroz, K. 2004. Phylogeny, ecomorphological evolution, and historical biogeography of the Anolis cristatellus series. Herpetological Monographs 18: 90-126 - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Klaczko, J.; T. Ingram and J. Losos 2015. Genitals evolve faster than other traits in Anolis lizards. Journal of Zoology 295 (1): 44–48 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • Nelson, Claire M V, and Terry J Ord. 2022. Identifying Potential Cues of Species Identity in Complex Animal Signals. Animal Behaviour 186: 121–36 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schoener, Thomas W.;Schoener, Amy 1971. Structural habitats of West Indian Anolis lizards II. Puerto Rican uplands. Breviora (375): 1-39 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724.
  • Thonis, Anna E.; Bradford C. Lister 2019. Predicting Climate-Induced Distributional Shifts for Puerto Rican Anoles. Copeia 107 (2): - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2012. Zwischen Anolis und Cycluren: Unterwegs auf Puerto Rico. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (95): 100-109 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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