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Anolis ferreus (COPE, 1864)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Marie-Galante Anole, Morne Constant Anole 
SynonymXiphosurus ferreus COPE 1864: 168
Anolis asper GARMAN 1887
Anolis ferreus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis marmoratus ferreus — LAZELL 1972
Anolis ferreus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 264
Anolis ferreus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ctenonotus ferreus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Marie-Galante

Type locality: Morne Constant, Marie-Galante

asper: Type locality: West Indies, Marie Galante.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.5.59
Syntypes: ANSP 23011, USNM 39293, USNM 39294, CAS [asper] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 119 mm, to 65 mm in females); 3-4
rows of loreals; 0-1 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 1 scale between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; abrupt change in scales behind inter- parietal and dorsals; dorsal scales swollen, keeled, slightly imbricate; midventral scales cycloid, imbricate, smooth to weakly keeled; 3-4 postrostrals; 3-4 post-mentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; supradigital scales smooth to unicarinate; 4 rows of vertical scales/10th caudal verticil; males with high caudal crest. Dorsal ground color (males) gray-brown, becoming greener posteriorly; dorsum sprinkled with dots seldom coalescing to form short vermiculations; laterally with yellow suffusions, often forming blotches; orbital area dull yellow; venter dull, pale yellow; chin blue-gray; dewlap yellow (sometimes with invasion of blue-gray from chin, rarely entirely blue-gray) with yellow scales; frequently with conspicuous caudal crest (with or without longitudinal streaking); dorsum (females) gray-brown to greenish with short flank stripe, obsolete middorsal pattern, and pale yellowish belly (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 264). 
CommentFor illustrations see Lazell, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 198. BOULENGER (188) lists Xiphosurus ferreus as a synonym of A. leachii.

Distribution: May have been established in Florida (Bartlett & Bartlett 1999) which was questioned by Meshaka et al. 2009.

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Meshaka Jr., Walter E., Brian P. Butterfield and J. Brian Hauge 2004. The Exotic Amphibians and Reptiles of Florida. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, 166 pp.
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R.S.; Jones, A.G.; Malhotra, A.; Surget-Groba, Y. 2008. Adaptive radiation in Lesser Antillean lizards: molecular phylogenetics and species recognition in the Lesser Antillean dwarf gecko complex, Sphaerodactylus fantasticus. Molecular Ecology 17(6):1489-1504 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
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