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Anolis gingivinus COPE, 1864

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Anguilla Bank Tree Anole, Anguilla bank anole, Anguilla Anole 
SynonymAnolis gingivinus COPE 1864: 170
Anolis gingivinus — BOULENGER 1885: 28
Anolis virgatus GARMAN 1887: 41
Anolis bimaculatus gingivinus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis gingivinus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 269
Anolis gingivinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ctenonotus gingivinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Anguilla Bank, St. Barthélemy; Gros îlet, Îlet Tortue, and Îlet Petit Jean

Introduced to Aruba (Behm et al. 2022).

Type locality: “Anguilla Rock near Trinidad"; restricted to Sandy Ground, Anguilla, by Lazell, 1972.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946., ZMUC
Syntype: ANSP 23007; West Indies, St. Barts; UMMZ, MCZ, USNM 39300 [virgatus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 72 mm, in females to 53 mm); 5-6
rows of loreals; 0-1 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 1-3 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; scales behind interparietal grade gradually into dorsals; dorsal scales granular, 2 dorsalmost rows enlarged, juxtaposed; ventral scales cycloid, smooth, slightly imbricate; 3 postrostrals; 4 post- mentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; supradigital scales multicarinate; 4-5 rows of vertical scales/10th caudal verticil; dorsalmost row of caudal scales enlarged. Dorsal ground color olive-drab to light greenish to rust; dorsal pattern a broad middorsal stripe, which may be lighter or darker than ground color in same individual at different times; bold light flank stripe from shoulder to groin; in males, pattern often modified by inclusion of spots or marbling of gray-brown; venter cream to bright yellow; dewlap yellow-orange with white scales (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 269). 
CommentFor illustrations see Lazell, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1923. West Indian investigations of 1922. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (132): 1-9 - get paper here
  • BEHM, JOCELYN E.; GIANNA M. BUSALA & MATTHEW R. HELMUS. 2022. First records of three new lizard species and a range expansion of a fourth lizard species introduced to Aruba. BioInvasions Records 11: 1–11. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Larimer, Samantha C.; Powell, Robert; Parmerlee, John S. 2006. Effects of structural habitat on the escape behavior of the lizard, Anolis gingivinus. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (4): 569-574 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • MASSARY, Jean-Christophe DE; Corentin BOCHATON, Roger BOUR, Maël DEWYNTER, Ivan INEICH, Nicolas VIDAL & Jean LESCURE 2018. Liste taxinomique de l’herpétofaune dans l’outre-mer français: II. Collectivité de Saint-Barthélemy. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 166 : 59-78 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert and Aaron M. Bauer. 2012. Anolis gingivinus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (893): 1-8 - get paper here
  • Questel K. 2012. Anolis gingivinus (Anguilla Bank Tree Anole). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 33: 1 - get paper here
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Marie Altmanová, Martina Pokorná and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2014. CONSERVED SEX CHROMOSOMES ACROSS ADAPTIVELY RADIATED ANOLIS LIZARDS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12357 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P. & Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruiksaanwijzing voor een van de meest interssante gropen terrariumdiern:Anolissen ´Deel II: het terrarium. Lacerta 61 (4): 144-153 - get paper here
  • WERNING, Heiko 2012. Im Bad mit Anolis – ein Besuch bei Uwe Bartelt. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (6): 88-92 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
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