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Anolis insolitus WILLIAMS & RAND, 1969

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Cordillera Central Twig Anole, La Palma Anole 
SynonymAnolis insolitus WILLIAMS & RAND 1969: 2
Anolis insolitus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 279
Anolis insolitus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Chamaelinorops insolitus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Chamaelinorops insolitus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (Dominican Republic: Cordillera Central; North slope of Loma Nalga de Maco, 4191 ft., Elias Piña Prov.)

Type locality: Paraje La Paima, Sección La Paima, Municipio Constanza, La Vega Province, República Dominicana.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 60144. 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 47 mm, in females to 44 mm); 2-4
(strongly modally 3) rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 1; 0-2 (strongly modally 1) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; suboculars in contact with supralabials; 4-7 (strongly modally 5) postrostrals; 3-8 postmentals; dorsal head scales with small spines and rugosities; suboculars in contact with supralabials; dorsal scales granular, smooth, subequal on flanks and middorsum except for crest of small, triangular, swollen scales from behind interparietal to just beyond forelimbs; ventrals larger than dorsals, smooth, cycloid, in transverse rows; dewlap moderately large, present in both sexes and juveniles, inset, scales granUlar, smaller than throat scales, much smaller than ventrals, stales (about as large as edge scales) in well-separated (females) or less well-defined (males) rows; limb and supradigital scales smooth; tail round with distinct dorsal crest of enlarged keeled middorsal scales, interrupted at intervals of 2-4 scales by paired paramedian scales; 4 ventral rows of subcaudals distinctly enlarged; no enlarged postanals. Dorsum (males) greenish to gray-brown, mottled, lichenate; males with dark, butterfly-shaped markings dorsally, less distinct on sides-Ion shoulders, 2 on back, 1 on sacrum, the last crossed by light orange spot; tail and limbs cross-barred; light yellow streak from above auricular opening to above forelimb insertion; sides and venter light cream, lightly speckled laterally with brown; females dull green with dark gray middorsal zone enclosing a series of dark gray spots; traces of sacral butterfly-shaped figure overlying dull orange sacral spot; faint indication of light streak from auricular opening to forelimb insertion; flanks mottled; dewlap not sexually dichromatic, rich mustard, brown, orange, or orange-ocher (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 279). 
CommentFor illustrations see Wiliams and Rand, 1969. 
  • Gavrilets, S. & Losos, J.B. 2009. Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323: 732-737 - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, Steven 1998. Skull characters and the cladistic relationships of the Hispaniolan dwarf twig Anolis. Herpetological Monographs 12: 192-236 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1974. A new species of primitive Anolis (Sauria, Iguanidae) from the Sierra de Baoruco, Hispaniola. Breviora (423): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Sherratt, Emma; María del Rosario Castañeda, Russell J. Garwood, D. Luke Mahler, Thomas J. Sanger, Anthony Herrel, Kevin de Queiroz, and Jonathan B. Losos 2015. Amber fossils demonstrate deep-time stability of Caribbean lizard communities. PNAS 112 (32), doi: 10.1073/pnas.1506516112 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. and A. S. Rand. 1969. Anolis insolitus, a new dwarf anole of zoogeographic importance from the mountains of the Dominican Republic. Breviora (326): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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