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Anolis lineatopus GRAY, 1840

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis lineatopus lineatopus GRAY 1840
Anolis lineatopus ahenobarbus UNDERWOOD & WILLIAMS 1959
Anolis lineatopus merope UNDERWOOD & WILLIAMS 1959
Anolis lineatopus neckeri GRANT 1940 
Common NamesE: Stripe-footed Anole, Stripefoot Anole
G: Strichfuss-Anolis 
SynonymAnolis lineatopus GRAY 1840: 113
Anolis maculatus GRAY 1845: 203 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Anolis lineatopus — BOULENGER 1885: 39
Anolis lineatopus lynni GRANT 1940: 155
Anolis lineatopus coxi GRANT 1940: 155
Anolis lineatopus lineatopus — GRANT 1940: 89
Anolis lineatopus coxi — GRANT 1940: 91
Anolis lineatopus lynni — GRANT 1940: 92
Anolis lineatopus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 286
Norops lineatopus — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis lineatopus — COOPER 2005
Norops lineatopus lineatopus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis lineatopus neckeri GRANT 1940: 155
Anolis lineatopus neckeri — GRANT 1940: 92
Anolis lineatopus neckeri — UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959: 38
Anolis lineatopus neckeri — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Norops lineatopus neckeri — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Anolis lineatopus neckeri — POWELL & HENDERSON 2012: 127

Anolis lineatopus ahenobarbus UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959
Anolis lineatopus ahenobarbus UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959: 40
Anolis lineatopus ahenobarbus — HILGENHOF 1998
Norops lineatopus ahenobarbus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops lineatopus ahenobarbus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis lineatopus merope UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959
Anolis lineatopus merope UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959: 36
Norops lineatopus merope — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops lineatopus merope — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 

lineatopus: roughly the southern third of Jamaica, from St. Elizabeth Parish east to St. Thomas Parish. Populations intermediate between 2, 3, or 4 of the subspecies that occur in eastern Jamaica, west and southwest of Buff Bay. Elsewhere, subspecies appear to interdigitate extensively or overlap; the relationships between the subspecies need to be clarified. Type locality: unknown.

ahenobarbus: extreme eastern Jamaica.

coxi: Jamaica; Type-locality: Portland Point (= Portland Ridge), Clarendon Parish, Jamaica

lynni: Jamaica; Type-locality: Chestervale, St. Andrew Parish, Jamaica.

merope: the northern marginal region of Jamaica; Cabarita I. off Port Maria.

neckeri: along east-west axis of Jamaica, from Hanover and Westmoreland parishes east into St. Catherine Parish; delineation of the ranges of the subspecies is tentative.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1936.12.3.92 = 1946.8.12.61
Holotype: BMNH 1954.1.2.58 [ahenobarbus]
Holotype: BMNH 1954.1.2.60 [merope]
Holotype: MCZ 45087 [neckeri]
Holotype: USNM 107902 [lynni]
Holotype: MCZ 45079 [coxi] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 70 mm, in females to 47 mm) 4-7
rows of loreals; 1-3 (mode 2) scales between supraorbital semicircles; 3-6 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; scales behind interparietal grade gradually into dorsals; dorsal and lateral scales small, broad, oval, mildly swollen, keeled, several middorsal rows moderately enlarged; ventrals longer than broad, slightly swollen, keeled, imbricate; 5 postrostrals; 4-5 postmentals; sub- oculars in contact with supralabials; several middorsal scale rows moderately enlarged; ventrals slightly swollen, weakly to strongly keeled, imbricate or not; supradigital scales multicarinate. Dorsum (male) brown; head uniform brown above; orbital area sandy, russet, partly green, or greenish blue; labials and throat with white spots (sometimes indistinct on lips); nape with or without light spotting or mottling; chin yellowish or bright orange-yellow, flanked by gray-brown mottling; with or without light line from shoulder to sacrum tinged with green; trunk may be patternless (brown, pale verdigris to yellow-green), or with or without broad, light middorsal stripe flanked by 4-9 dark brown, pale-bordered, transverse bands (3-7 on trunk, 1-2 on sacrum); bands descend sides and deteriorate into mottling ventrolaterally; a broad line from shoulder to groin; with or without a narrower line dorsolaterally (forming gridiron pattern); dewlap orange to dark orange centrally with gray to yellow border, scales white, white with greenish tinge, or yellowish; limbs with faint to conspicuous transverse bands; transverse markings on digits; tail proximally with hourglass markings; belly opalescent with greenish tinge to yellow-gray with faint, lateral mottling; dorsum (female) similar to male, but with russet head, with or without dark lines on throat; dorsum variable: broad, light middorsal stripe flanked by dark brown (uniform, speckled, or in transverse bands); lateral and (usually) dorsolateral light lines present, may have greenish tinge; belly opalescent to opalescent yellow (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 286).

Original description (lynni): “In the mountams, Dr. Lynn found a form, peculiar in that the black zebra markings continue clear around the animal, giving the belly a zebra pattern differing thereby from any Anole In the writer's ken.” (Grant 1940: 5)

Original description (coxi): “smaller, brighter-coloured than the typical form, and with the number of scale rows between the supraorbital semicircles reduced
almost invariably to one instead of two as In the other forms.” (Grant 1940: 5) 
CommentFor illustrations see Underwood and Williams, 1959; von Brockhusen, 1976; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: neckeri is not listed by NICHOLSON et al. 2012, 2018 It may be a synonym.

Subspecies: neckeri and appear to interdigitate extensively or even overlap (merope and neckeri in Hanover and Westmoreland parishes). Specimens from southern parts of St. James and Trelawny parishes and from parts of Westmoreland Par., presently assigned to neckeri, differ somewhat from typical neckeri in pattern and dewlap color (SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988).

Hybridization: Jenssen 1977 provided evidence that A. grahami and A. lineatopus neckeri hybridize.

Species group: Norops valencienni species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
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  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Brockhusen, F. von. 1976. Erfahrungen bei der Haltung und Zucht von Anolis lineatopus (Sauria, Iguanidae) aus Jamaica. Salamandra 12 (2):103-5 - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
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  • Fleishman, Leo J.; Maya G. F. Prebish & Manuel Leal <br /> 2020. The Effects of Limited Visual Acuity and Context on the Appearance of Anolis Lizard Dewlaps. Journal of Herpetology 54 (3): 355-360 - get paper here
  • GARNER, AUSTIN M.; MICHAEL C. WILSON, CAITLIN WRIGHT, ANTHONY P. RUSSELL, PETER H. NIEWIAROWSKI & ALI DHINOJWALA. 2022. Parameters of the adhesive setae and setal fields of the Jamaican radiation of anoles (Dactyloidae: Anolis): potential for ecomorphology at the microscopic scale. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 137(1): 85–99. - get paper here
  • Grant C. 1940. Notes on the reptiles and amphibians of Jamaica, with diagnoses of new species and subspecies. In: Jamaica Today. Hazell, Watson, and Viney, London and Aylesbury, p.151-157.
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  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Hilgenhof, R. J. 1998. Eine herpetologische Reise nach Nordost - Jamaika unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Anolis Daudin, 1802 - Teil II. Sauria 20 (3): 3-10 - get paper here
  • Hilgenhof, R. J. 1998. Eine herpetologische Reise nach Nordost - Jamaika unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Anolis Daudin, 1802 - Teil I. Sauria 20 (2): 15-27 - get paper here
  • Huie, Jonathan M; Ivan Prates, Rayna C Bell, Kevin de Queiroz 2021. Convergent patterns of adaptive radiation between island and mainland Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2021;, blab072, - get paper here
  • Jackman, Tod R.; Irschick, Duncan J.; de Queiroz, Kevin; Losos, Jonathan; Larson, Allan 2002. Molecular Phylogenetic Perspective on Evolution of Lizards of the Anolis grahami Series. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol. 294 (1):1-16 - get paper here
  • Jenssen, T.A. 1977. Morphological, Behavioral and Electrophoretic Evidence of Hybridization between the Lizards, Anolis grahami and Anolis lineatopus neckeri, on Jamaica. Copeia 1977 (2): 270-276 - get paper here
  • Lazell, James 1993. Anolis lineatopus lineatopus (Liguanea bush anole). Jamaica. Herpetological Review 24 (3): 108 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
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  • Macedonia, Joseph M.; David L. Clark, and Alison L. Tamasi 2014. Does Selection Favor Dewlap Colors that Maximize Detectability? A Test with Five Species of Jamaican Anolis Lizards. Herpetologica Jun 2014, Vol. 70, No. 2: 157-170. - get paper here
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  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • ORD, T. J.; D. A. KLOMP, J. GARCIA-PORTA & M. HAGMAN 2015. Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards. J. evol. Biol., doi: 10.1111/jeb.12709 - get paper here
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  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schoener, Thomas W.;Schoener, Amy 1971. Structural habitats of West Indian Anolis lizards I. Lowland Jamaica. Breviora (368): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
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  • Vogel, P. 1984. Seasonal Hatchling Recruitment and Juvenile Growth of the Lizard Anolis lineatopus Copeia 1984 (3): 747-757. - get paper here
  • Vogel, P., W. Hettrich & K. Ricono 1986. Weight Growth of Juvenile Lizards, Anolis lineatopus, Maintained on Different Diets Journal of Herpetology 20 (1): 50-58. - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E.; Rand, A. S. 1977. Species recognition, dewlap function and faunal size. American Zoologist 17: 261-270 - get paper here
  • Wilson, B.S. & Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the Blue-tailed Galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Carib. J. Sci. 36: 244-249
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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