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Anolis lividus GARMAN, 1887

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Montserrat Anole, Plymouth Anole 
SynonymAnolis lividus GARMAN 1887: 43
Anolis bimaculatus ?lividus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis lividus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 289
Anolis lividus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ctenonotus lividus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus lividus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Montserrat

Type locality: “Montserrat”, restricted by SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 to the principal town of Plymouth, where this species is abundant.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 6167; Syntypes: UMMZ 60233 (4), 60240 (2), ANSP 23010, USNM 39303, 39304 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 70 mm, females to 52 mm); 5-6
rows of loreals; 0-1 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 1-3 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; abrupt change in scales behind interparietal and dorsals; dorsal scales small, swollen, keeled, 2 dorsalmost rows enlarged; -midventral scales larger than dorsal scales, cycloid, smooth to weakly keeled, imbricate; 3-4 postrostrals; 4-5 postmentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; supradigital scales multicarinate; 4 rows of vertical scales/10th caudal verticil. Dorsum (males) brownish green on head, plain green to yellow-green on trunk, to blue-green on tail; with or without whitish spotting; may have dull orange or reddish brown blotches on nape (northeast Montserrat); eyelids yellow to red; venter cream, yellow, or light green; dewlap yellow to olive-drab with white to green scales; dorsum (females) olive-green or brown with striped, ladder, or obsolete middorsal pattern; eyelids yellow to orange; both sexes tum darker and browner when "upset." (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 289). 
CommentFor illustrations see LazelI, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985. Has been synonymized with A. alliaceus by Günther 1888.

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin lividus, meaning “bluish metal-colored” or “lead-colored”. 
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles. Iguanidae. Bull. Essex Inst. 19: 25-50. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Muñoz, Martha M. and James Hewlett 2010. Ecomorphological response of Anolis lividus to volcanic activity on Montserrat. Anolis Newsletter VI: 162-163 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R.S.; Jones, A.G.; Malhotra, A.; Surget-Groba, Y. 2008. Adaptive radiation in Lesser Antillean lizards: molecular phylogenetics and species recognition in the Lesser Antillean dwarf gecko complex, Sphaerodactylus fantasticus. Molecular Ecology 17(6):1489-1504 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
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