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Anolis monteverde KÖHLER, 2009

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis monteverde KÖHLER 2009
Norops altae — SAVAGE & VILLA 1986 (part.)
Norops altae — VILLA et al. 1988 (part.)
Norops altae — KÖHLER 2000 (part.)
Norops altae — LEENDERS 2001 (part.)
Norops altae — SAVAGE 2002 (part.)
Norops altae — KÖHLER 2003 (part.)
Norops monteverde — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops monteverde — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCosta Rica (Puntarenas)

Type locality: 2 km east of Santa Elena (10°20’30.5’’N, 84°48’16.0’’W), 1,550 m elevation, Puntarenas Province,Costa Rica  
TypesHolotype: SMF 86920, an adult male, collected 17 February 2007 by Gunther Köhler. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen 50.2 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe, 2004) that differs from all Lower Central American anoles except A. altae, A. carpenteri, A. fortunensis, A. fuscoauratus, A. gruuo, A. kemptoni, A. pseudokemptoni in that it is short-legged (longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaches only to tympanum), usually has a single elongated prenasal scale, smooth to slightly keeled ventral scales, and a slender habitus, often delicate. Anolis altae differs from the species in this cluster listed above by the following characteristics: unilobate hemipenis (bilobate in A. altae, A. gruuo and A. pseudokemptoni); basal portion of male dewlap yellow ocher to orange yellow, distal portion reddishorange (more or less uniformly reddish-orange in A. altae, uniform orange in A. carpenteri, posterior portion of male dewlap greenishbeige, anterior portion reddish-orange in A. fortunensis, uniform pinkish-brown to red in A. fuscoauratus, more or less uniform dull orange in A. gruuo, posterior portion rose pink, anterior portion burnt orange, small cream-colored basal blotch in some populations in A. kemptoni, posterior portion vinaceus, anterior portion orange, anterodorsal corner cream color in A. pseudokemptoni); body reddish-brown (greenish in A. carpenteri); ratio tail length : SVL 1.7–1.9, mean 1.8 (1.8–2.2, mean 2.1, in A. altae); ratio HL : HW 1.60–1.75, mean 1.69 (1.68–1.98, mean 1.81, in A. kemptoni, 1.82–1.86, mean 1.85 in A. pseudokemptoni); maximum SVL 47 mm (57 mm in A. kemptoni, 55 mm in A. pseudokemptoni); total number of loreal scales 37–68 (75–88 in A. pseudokemptoni); scales between posterior canthals 7–11 (10–15 in A. fortunensis); dorsal scales in one head length 49–78 (38–46 in A. gruuo, 40–48 in A. pseudokemptoni); scales around midbody 138–160 (118–138 in A. carpenteri).
CommentAccording to KÖHLER 2009, no characteristics, except geographic location, are known to separate females of A. altae and A. monteverde, but male dewlap coloration and particularly hemipenis morphology readily separates these two otherwise cryptic species.

Illustrated in Savage (2002: plate 268) as A. altae.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2003. Reptiles of Central America. Herpeton Verlag, 367 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 429] - get paper here
  • Kohler, G. 2011. A new species of anole related to Anolis altae from Volcán Tenorio, Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 3120: 29-42 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther 2009. New Species of Anolis Formerly Referred to as Anolis altae from Monteverde, Costa Rica (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Journal of Herpetology 43 (1):11-20 - get paper here
  • LEENDERS, T. 2001. A Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami, Florida.
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Savage, J. M., & VILLA, J. 1986. An Introduction to the Herpetofauna of Costa Rica. Soc. Stud. Amphib. Rept. Contrib. Herpetol. No. 3, viii + 207 pp.
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Villa, J., Wilson, L.D., Johnson, J.D. 1988. Middle American Herpetology - A Bibliographic Checklist. University of Missouri Press, 132 pp [review in Copeia 1989 (3): 802]
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