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Anolis occultus WILLIAMS & RIVERO, 1965

IUCN Red List - Anolis occultus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPuerto Rican twig anole, Limestone Anole, Dwarf Anole

Spanish: Largartijo enano 
SynonymAnolis occultus WILLIAMS & RIVERO 1965: 4
Anolis occultus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 306
Anolis occultus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Deiroptyx occulta — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Deiroptyx occulta — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPuerto Rico

Type locality: Road 143, midway beteen Cerro La Punta (1338 m) and Cerro Maravilla (1183 m), Puerto Rico.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 80303. 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 42 mm, in females to 40 mm); limbs
very short; 2-6 rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 2-5 (mode 3); 2-6 (mode 4) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 6-10 (mode 9) postrostrals; 4-6 (mode 4) postmentals; no enlarged postanal scales in males; supraciliary scales granular; only 2 (posterior) differentiated canthals; head scales smooth; frontal depression shallow; middorsal scales smooth, fiat, not larger than flank scales; ventrals larger than dorsals, smooth, cycloid, juxtaposed, in transverse rows; dewlap large, present in both sexes, inset, all scales granular, smaller than throat scales, much smaller than ventrals, edge scales especially small, lateral scales of dewlap small but well developed in well-separated rows (males), or weakly developed to almost absent (females); limb and supradigital scales smooth; tail round, without crest; verticils indistinct with about 11 granules dorsally and 5 keeled scales below per verticil. Dorsum: (1) unicolor-gray through olive-brown, olive, yellow-green, to dirty orange; pattern elements (see below) minimal, but lumbar spot(s) usually present; axillary and inguinal areas dull to bright yellow; yellow edge to lumbar spot; usually green during day and gray or brown at night; (2) lichenate-pattern boldly developed and black or dark gray, ground color off-white to very light gray; (3) intermediate-ground color as above, but with pattern represented by fragments, moderately or poorly developed, or reticulate; pattern elements: a dark cephalic figure or interocular triangle, solid or hollow; dark, radiating eye-lines; 4 zones of transverse banding on body (scapular, dorsal, lumbar, sacral), manifested as either very hazy, indistinct, dark bands or as bands with sharply defined, sinuous, dark anterior edge and posteriorly fading zone of dark pigment; a yellow lumbar spot (often paired) in lumbar band (resembling eye-spots-is this to warn off potential predators, or is it for intraspecific recognition?) the most constant pattern feature; a fine, reticulum of dark lines, appearing as faint small ocelli; venter pale, frequently with some stippling and a distinct but irregular zone of juncture with dorsal color; transverse body bands continue onto tail as small, dark chevrons; dewlap pinkish gray or cream, posterior edge rusty (no sexual dichromatism) (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 306). 
CommentFor illustrations see Williams and Rivero, 1965; Thomas, 1965; Rivero, 1978; Gorman, 1981.

Species group: Deiroptyx occulta species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Gorman, G.C. 1981. Anolis occultus, a small cryptic canopy lizard: are there pair bonds? Carib. J. Sci. 15 (3-4):29-31.
  • Huie, Jonathan M; Ivan Prates, Rayna C Bell, Kevin de Queiroz 2021. Convergent patterns of adaptive radiation between island and mainland Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2021;, blab072, - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Patton, Austin H.; Luke J. Harmon, María del Rosario Castañeda, Hannah K. Frank, Colin M. Donihue, Anthony Herrel, and Jonathan B. Losos 2021. When adaptive radiations collide: Different evolutionary trajectories between and within island and mainland lizard clades. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 10.1073/pnas.2024451118 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Sanchez, Alejandro 2010. Observations on sleeping behavior of Anolis occultus and A. cuvieri in Puerto Rico. Anolis Newsletter VI: 174 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1974. A new species of primitive Anolis (Sauria, Iguanidae) from the Sierra de Baoruco, Hispaniola. Breviora (423): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Thomas, R. 1965. Part Il. Field observations on Anolis occultus Williams and Rivero. Breviora (231):10-16. - get paper here
  • Webster, T. Preston 1969. Ecological observations on Anolis occultus Williams and Rivero (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (312): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E. and J. A. Rivero. 1965. A new anole (Sauria, Iguanidae) from Puerto Rico. Part I. Description. Breviora (231):1-9. - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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