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Anolis oculatus (COPE, 1879)

IUCN Red List - Anolis oculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis oculatus cabritensis LAZELL 1962
Anolis oculatus montanus LAZELL 1962
Anolis oculatus oculatus (COPE 1879)
Anolis oculatus winstonorum LAZELL 1962 
Common NamesE: Dominica Anole, Dominican anole, Eyed Anole 
SynonymXiphosurus oculatus COPE 1879: 274
Anolis oculatus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis oculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 308
Anolis oculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ctenonotus oculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis oculatus cabritensis LAZELL 1962: 469
Anolis oculatus cabritensis — HESELHAUS & SCHMIDT 1995
Ctenonotus oculatus cabritensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus oculatus cabritensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis oculatus montanus LAZELL 1962
Ctenonotus oculatus montanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus oculatus montanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis oculatus winstonorum LAZELL 1962
Anolis oculatus winstoni LAZELL 1962: 472
Anolis oculatus winstoni — MANTHEY 1984
Anolis oculatus winstoni — HESELHAUS & SCHMIDT 1995
Anolis oculatus winstoni — ZEILFELDER 2005
Anolis oculatus winstonorum — MICHELS & BAUER 2004
Anolis oculatus winstoni — REIPRICH 2009
Ctenonotus oculatus winstonorum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus oculatus winstoni — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Dominica

oculatus: southwestern periphery of Dominica; intergrades with A. o. cabritensis, A. o. montanus, and A. o. winstoni. Type locality: Dominica; restricted ta Roseau, St. George Parish, Dominica, by Lazell, 1962.

cabritensis: aid leeward coast of Dominica from Grand Savanna ta the Cabrits; intergrades with A. o. winstoni.

montanus: interior uplands of Dominica from Fond Hunt in the north ta Morne Anglais in the south; intergrades with A. o. winstoni.

winstonorum: lowlands of eastern Dominica from Penville in the north ta La Plaine in the south.  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 10139-10148, USNM 10150-10151, USNM 10153
Holotype: MCZ 60319 [montanus]
Holotype: MCZ 60467 [winstonorum]
Holotype: MCZ 60245 [cabritensis] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL to 96 mm in males, 64 mm in females); 5-6
rows of loreals; 1-2 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 2-3 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 3-5 postrostrals; 4-6 postmentals; sub-oculars in contact with supralabials; scales behind interparietal grade gradually into dorsals; dorsal scales small, swollen, 2 dorsalmost rows enlarged; ventral scales cycloid, smooth to weakly keeled, slightly imbricate, larger than dorsals; supradigital scales muIticarinate; 4-6 rows vertical scales/10th caudal verticil; dorsalmost row of caudal scales enlarged. Dorsal ground color green, olive, rich brown, gray-brown, pale tan, or black; dorsum usually with white spots surrounded by black; venter white, pale yellow, bright yellow, peach, green (metallic or coppery posteriorly); dewlap (a) bright yellow with whitish scales, (b) dark, dull ocher to orange with green or gray-green scales, (c) deep pumpkin-yellow with lighter yellow scales; females usually with striped middorsal pattern (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 308). 
CommentFor illustrations see Lazell, 1962; Lazell, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, cover of Herpetofauna 8 (45). Has been synonymized with A. alliaceus (e.g. by GÜNTHER 1888).

Variation: This is quite a variable species, see images in Malhotra & Thorpe 1999: 22ff. On the tiny island of Dominica A. oculatus has 4 distinct lineages with as great as 10% mtDNA divergence (Malhotra and Thorpe 2000).

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Andrews, Robin M. 1979. Evolution of life histories: A comparison of Anolis lizards from matched island and mainland habitats. Breviora (454): 1-51 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Krintler, K. 1986. Dominica - herpetologisches Kleinod in der Karibik. Herpetofauna 8 (45): 26-30 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1962. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the Eastern Caribbean, Part V. Geographic differentiation in Anolis oculatus on Dominica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 127: 466-475 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Malhotra A. Thorpe R S. 1997. Size and shape variation in a Lesser Antillean anole, Anolis oculatus (Sauria: Iguanidae) in relation to habitat. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 60 (1): 53-72 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Malhotra, A. and R. S. Thorpe. 1992. Anolis oculatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (540) - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A.;Thorpe, R. S. 1991. Microgeographic variation in Anolis oculatus, on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 4: 321-335 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita; Thorpe, Roger S.; Hypolite, Eric; James, Arlington. 2007. A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies. Applied Herpetology 4 (2):177-194 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita;Thorpe, Roger S. 1994. Parrallels between island lizards suggests selection on mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 257: 37-42 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita;Thorpe, Roger S. 1997. Microgeographic variation in scalation of Anolis oculatus (Dominica, West Indies): a multivariate analysis. Herpetologica 53 (1): 49-62 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1984. 9 Jahre Anolis - Zucht, Teil 2: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse. Sauria 6 (3): 23-27 - get paper here
  • Michels, J.P. & A.M. Bauer 2004. Some corrections to the scientific names of amphibians and reptiles. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 52: 83–94 [2005] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Reiprich, W. 2009. Terrarien, Leguane und Co. Iguana Rundschreiben 22 (2): 5-15
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Marie Altmanová, Martina Pokorná and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2014. CONSERVED SEX CHROMOSOMES ACROSS ADAPTIVELY RADIATED ANOLIS LIZARDS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12357 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Somma, L.A. & G.R. Brooks 1976. Reproduction in Anolis oculatus, Ameiva fuscata and Mabuya mabouya from Dominica Copeia 1976 (2): 249-256. - get paper here
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Malhotra, A. and Surget-Groba, Y. 2015. Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change. Molecular Ecology 24: 1019–1030. doi: 10.1111/mec.13093 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R.S.; Jones, A.G.; Malhotra, A.; Surget-Groba, Y. 2008. Adaptive radiation in Lesser Antillean lizards: molecular phylogenetics and species recognition in the Lesser Antillean dwarf gecko complex, Sphaerodactylus fantasticus. Molecular Ecology 17(6):1489-1504 - get paper here
  • Welzel, Andreas 1981. Die Nachzucht von Anolis oculatus montanus im Terrarium. Herpetofauna 3 (13): 22-24 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
  • Zeilfelder, I. 2005. Haltung und Nachzucht von Anolis oculatus winstoni LAZELL 1962. Iguana Rundschreiben 18 (2): 20-26
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