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Anolis phyllorhinus MYERS & CARVALHO, 1945

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Leaf-nosed anole, Bat Anole
Portuguese: Calanguinho, Papa-vento 
SynonymAnolis phyllorhinus MYERS & CARVALHO 1945: 2
Dactyloa phyllorhinus — SAVAGE & GUYER 1989: 107
Anolis phyllorhinus — RODRIGUES et al. 2002
Dactyloa phyllorhinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa phyllorhina — PRATES et al. 2014
Dactyloa phyllorhinus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Anolis phylorrhinus — INEICH et al. 2022: 131 (in error) 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Para)

Type locality: Borba, lower Rio Madeira, State of Amazonas, Brasil.  
TypesHolotype: MNRJ (Rio de Janeiro) 1804 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A green anole, with granular, smooth or keeled dorsals, and larger (but relatively small), smooth or keeled ventrals. Digital expansions well developed. Body and tail slightly to moderately compressed. Mental large, expanded ventrally. A distinct row of sublabials at each side, with scales much larger than median scales on chin. Adult males with a proboscis about as long as the head, vertically flat, flexible and covered with small scales, originating above the rostral (females and juveniles unknown). Dewlap yellow, in males reaching beyond level of forelimbs. Maximum known SVL 71 mm (from Avila-Pires 1995: 98).

Description. Anole with 71 mm SVL, tail length 152 mm, which represents 2.14 times SVL. Head (not including proboscis) 0.26 times SVL, 1.8 times as long as wide, and 1.1 times as wide as high. Snout relatively long, prolonged by a flexible, vertically flat proboscis, which is 0.72 times the head length when measured from rostral, 1.11 times when measured from the dorsal limit, on middle of snout; height, measured just anterior to rostral, 0.21 times its length measured from dorsal limit; tip round in lateral view. Neck narrower than head and body. Body and tail moderately compressed. Limbs well developed, tibia shorter than thigh, 0.21 times SVL.
Tongue wide, villose. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth tricuspid.
Rostral triangular, 2.8 times as wide as long, bordered by nine postrostrals. Median postrostral with a median sulcus and, together with rostral, horizontal in position, facing ventrally, thus forming the ventral base of the proboscis. Upper border of proboscis starting at middle of snout. Proboscis covered with small scales, above snout slightly larger and wider than long; medially, i n front of supranasal scales, they are elongate and narrow, toward lower and upper borders becoming wider, and anteriorly roundish. Nasal in contact with postrostrals, directed lateroanteriorly. Scales on snout polygonal, smooth, flat, juxtaposed (pavimentose); nine scales across snout between second canthals. Canthus rostralis well defined, with five elongate, keeled canthals, anterior one small and separated from nostril by two small postnasals. One long, keeled supraciliary aligned with canthals, nearly reaching level of middle of eye, posteriorly followed by granules. Supraorbital semicircles distinct, with nine scales, larger anteriorly; separated medially by one row of scales. Supraocular region with a group of enlarged polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed scales near supraorbital semicircle, elsewhere with granules. Interparietal several times larger than adjacent scales, separated from supraorbital semicircles b y one scale. Scales around interparietal polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed, anteriorly slightly larger, laterally and posteriorly grading into granules toward supratemporal and occipital areas. Loreal scales polygonal, longer than wide, forming from two (anteriorly) to four or five (posteriorly) longitudinal rows (four scales in a vertical line under second canthal); scales larger toward supralabials; those on row adjacent to supralabials have a thin keel along their ventral border. A continuous row of three preoculars, three larger suboculars in contact with supralabials, and one smaller subocular not in contact with supralabials; lower preocular (on one side) and suboculars keeled. Seven supralabials on one side, eight on the other, reaching to below centre of eye; followed by small scales to commissure of mouth. Temporal region with small, granular scales, separated from eyelid by a few rows of slightly larger scales, from supratemporal region by a double row of slightly enlarged scales. Ear-opening relatively small, vertically oval, its lower margin at level of commissure of mouth; with smooth margin and short auditory meatus.
Mental formed by two symmetrical semicircles, partially separated by a median cleft, which continues as a midventral sulcus on anterior part of chin; bordered on each side of the sulcus by first infralabial, one sublabial, and two (on one side) or three (on the other side, two of which in one longitudinal row) small, median scales. Seven infralabials, sixth below centre of eye. Chin with five, respectively, six large, broadly keeled sublabials, only posterior one not in contact with infralabials. Chin medially with small, subrectangular scales, which are longer than wide, and arranged in longitudinal rows. Posteriorly these scales become round, and they are in longitudinally oblique, and transverse rows; posterior and medial to sublabials, some polygonal scales of intermediate size. Dewlap, although not extended in the preserved specimen, seems to be well developed, reaching about halfway between level of forelimbs and middle of belly; scales along rim subtriangular (with round corners), imbricate; toward the sides they gradually decrease in size, and are elongate, irregular, surrounded by naked skin, forming approximately longitudinal (partially oblique) rows.
Scales on nape and sides of neck, like dorsals and scales on flanks, small, granular. A double row of vertebral scales, only slightly larger than adjacent scales, distinct from nape to base of tail, anteriorly forming an elevated ridge. Ventrals larger than dorsals, roughly squarish although variable in form, smooth, imbricate. Gradual transition between scales on flanks and ventrals. Scales around midbody 149. Preanal plate covered with small, granular scales. No enlarged postanal scales.
Base of tail wide, dorsally and laterally with numerous small, smooth, juxtaposed to subimbricate scales, which ventrally increase in size toward midventral line. Distally, scales keeled and in longitudinal rows, with a pair of dorsal, and a pair of ventral rows of larger scales; proximally ventral rows, distally also dorsal and lateral rows form distinct longitudinal ridges. Scales on tail arranged in inconspicuous verticils, three pairs of ventrals corresponding to five (proximally) or four (distally) pairs of dorsals.
Scales on limbs mostly small, juxtaposed to subimbricate, smooth. A few rows of slightly larger, hexagonal, keeled scales on anterior surface of forearms. On hind limbs scales slightly larger ventrally than dorsally, with squarish, smooth, subimbricate scales, in vertical rows, on anterior aspect of thighs, ventrally becoming roundish. Digital expansions well developed; 22-28 lamellae under fourth finger, 21-22 to end of digital expansion; 45-47 under fourth toe, 38-39 to end of digital expansion, 25-26 under phalanges two and three.
Colour in life described by Myers & Carvalho (1945), on the basis of a colour sketch made by A . Parko, as bright blue-green, with a yellow dewlap and traces of pink or red on toes, top of snout, and end of rostral appendage (from Avila-Pires 1995: 98). 
CommentSpecies groups: Dactyloa punctata species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Ineich, I., Koppetsch, T., & Böhme, W. 2022. Pinocchio lizards and other lizards bearing rostral appendages− the peculiar habitus of the draconine agamid Harpesaurus tricinctus with highlights on its ecological implications and convergence with its New World equivalent, the dactyloid Anolis pro Salamandra 58(2): 123–138. - get paper here
  • Myers, George S. & Leitão de Carvalho, Antenor 1945. A strange new leaf-nosed lizard of the genus Anolis from Amazonia. Boletim do Museu Nacional-Zoologia (43): 1-14
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Prates, Ivan; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Paulo Roberto Melo-Sampaio, Ana Carolina Carnaval 2014. Phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian anole lizards (Dactyloa): Taxonomic implications, new insights about phenotypic evolution and the timing of diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82: 258-268, DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.10.005 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. Zootaxa 3983 (1): 001–110 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut, et al. 2002. New specimens of Anolis phyllorhinus (Squamata, Polychrotidae): the first female of the species and of proboscid anoles. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 42 (16): 363-380 - get paper here
  • Williams,E.E. 1979. South American Anoles: the species groups. 2. The proboscis anoles (Anolis laevis group). Breviora (449): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H.; Miguel A. Urgilés, Marco Altamirano B., Stalin R. Cáceres S. 2010. Redescripción de Anolis proboscis Peters & Orcés (Reptilia: Polychrotidae), con el descubrimiento de las hembras de la especie y comentarios sobre su distribución y taxonomía. Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería, 2, 1-14 - get paper here
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