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Anolis porcus (COPE, 1864)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Oriente Bearded Anole 
SynonymChamaeleolis porcus COPE 1864:168
Chamaeleolis porcus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON
Chamaeleolis porcus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 382
Anolis porcus — POWELL et al. 1996: 80
Chamaeleolis porcus — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 170
Chamaeleolis porcus — KARCH 2002
Xiphosurus porcus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis (Chamaeleolis) porcus — RODRIGUEZ-SCHETTINO et al. 2013
Xiphosurus porcus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionE Cuba

Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Garrido and Schwartz, 1968, to the vicinity of the city of Guantánamo, Guantánamo Province, Cuba.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 8133. 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 162 mm, in females to 171 mm); tail longer than SVL in adults; tail not semiprehensile; paramedian gular scales long, flexible, barbel-like, extending to posterior edge of orbit; supralabials in (usually broad) contact with circumorbital ring; scales in about 4 dorsalmost rows longer than broad (elongate oval in shape), with few or no tiny interstitial scales or granules; ventrals flat or swollen, fairly large (22-48 in snout-orbit distance); zone of transition between large lateral scales and smaller ventral scales relatively abrupt; scales on lower jaw below angle of jaws smooth or only slightly irregular; posterior expanded portion of casque with relatively smaller scales; total loreals 23-56; 12-17 small scales between interparietal and border of casque; canthals swollen but not so large as in Ch. barbatus; auricular opening oval, lenticular, with dorsal fleshy tag poorly developed. Tongue intense black except for grayish lower sides; dorsum generally clear gray and without spots or dots, but with metachrosis (brownish or greenish gray to black); a grayish white supraaxillary patch; well-defined black dots and markings on casque, labials, and sides of face; venter yellowish near limbs, brownish elsewhere; dewlap present in both sexes, dull purple (female), brownish to orange-yellow basally and medially, bluish gray at throat, with 4 well-defined brownish bands (both sexes); juveniles colored and patterned like adults; iris very dark chestnut in adults (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 382). 
CommentThe genus Chamaeleolis was synonymized within Anolis by Hass et al. (1993).

Species group: Xiphosurus chamaeleonides species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Diaz,L.M.; Navarro,N. & Garrido, O.H. 1998. Nueva especie de Chamaeleolis (Sauria: Iguanidae) de la Meseta de Cabo Cruz, Granma, Cuba. Avicennia 8/9: 27-34
  • Garrido,O.H. & Schwartz,A. 1968. Cuban lizards of the genus Chamaeleolis. Quarterly J. Florida Acad. Sci. 30: 197-220 [1967] - get paper here
  • Hass, C. A., S. B. Hedges, and L. R. Maxson. 1993. Molecular insights into the relationships and biogeography of West Indian anoline lizards. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 21: 97-114. - get paper here
  • Holáňová V., Rehák I. & Frynta D. 2012. Anolis sierramaestrae sp. nov. (Squamata: Polychrotidae) of the “chamaeleolis” species group from Eastern Cuba. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 76 (1–2): 45–52. - get paper here
  • Karch, P. 2002. Bemerkungen zur Gattung Chamaeleolis. Iguana Rundschreiben 15 (2): 11-12
  • Mahler, D. Luke; Shea M. Lambert, Anthony J. Geneva, Julienne Ng, S. Blair Hedges, Jonathan B. Losos, and Richard E. Glor 2016. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations. The American Naturalist, DOI: 10.1086/687566 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
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