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Anolis pulchellus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPuerto Rican bush anole, Puerto Rican Anole, Snake Anole

Spanish: Lagartijo de las yerbas 
SynonymAnolis pulchellus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 97
Dactyloa (Heterolepis) pulchella — FITZINGER 1843: 66
Anolis pulchellus — GRAY 1845: 204
Anolis pulchellus — BOULENGER 1885: 67
Anolis pulchellus — FOWLER 1918
Anolis pulchellus — GRANT 1932
Ctenonotus pulchellus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 117
Anolis pulchellus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 319
Anolis pulchellus — BRANDLEY & DE QUEIROZ 2004
Ctenonotus pulchellus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus pulchellus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPuerto Rico, Isla Vieques, Isla Culebra, Virgin Islands, isla de Cabras (near San Juan, Puerto Rico), Frenchman Cay (British Virgin Islands, e.g. Anegada)

Type locality: see comment  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 0796, MNHN-RA 0796A and MNHN-RA 2423 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 47 mm, in females to 36 mm); habitus
attenuate, tail long; 4-6 (strongly modally 4) rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 0-2 (strongly modally 1); 1-4 (strongly modally 3) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; head scales keeled and wrinkled; 5 post-rostrals; 4 postmentals; suboculars in broad contact with supralabials; dorsals small, much smaller than ventrals, keeled, gradually merging into lateral granules; ventrals large, imbricate, sharply keeled, keels forming continuous ridges; throat scales much smaller than ventrals, narrow; supradigital scales strongly multi- carinate; digits very long and slender; tail very long, more than 2 x SVL, moderately compressed, scales large, imbricate, keeled, nonverticillate, with serrate edge middorsally; dewlap scales widely spaced, edge thickened. Dorsum rather variable: dull clay-colored, more dusky along midline, to dark olive or olive-yellow; head darker, more brownish; a broad, black line from eye 1/2 way along side of neck, another on lower lip edge, a third on lower edge of mandible, most distinct between auricular opening and shoulder; flanks and venter Naples-yellow; a stripe on upper labials over auricular opening to shoulder primrose-yellow; flanks with (usually) a series of oblique, elongate spots of bright gamboge-yellow, narrowly margined black; tail and limbs faintly crossbarred with dusky; dewlap bright crimson anteriorly grading to dark rose-pink, posteriorly grading to orange, at times with center magenta or purplish, scales widely separated, gamboge-yellow (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 319). 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982; Grobman, 1983; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.
Ecomorph class: grass-bush.

Terra typica: Martinique (in error).

Species group: Ctenonotus cristatellus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “pulchellus” = pretty. 
  • Barbour, T. 1917. Notes on the herpetology of the Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 30: 97-103. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Brandley, M.C. & De Queiroz, K. 2004. Phylogeny, ecomorphological evolution, and historical biogeography of the Anolis cristatellus series. Herpetological Monographs 18: 90-126 - get paper here
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • de Queiroz, Kevin and Losos, Jonathan B. 2017. Anolis pulchellus (Puerto Rican Grass-bush Anole) and Sphaerodactylus macrolepis (Big-scaled Dwarf Gecko) Predator-prey interaction. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 184 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Fleishman, Leo J.; Maya G. F. Prebish & Manuel Leal <br /> 2020. The Effects of Limited Visual Acuity and Context on the Appearance of Anolis Lizard Dewlaps. Journal of Herpetology 54 (3): 355-360 - get paper here
  • Fowler, H. W. 1918. Some amphibians and reptiles from Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 252: 1-16.
  • Gavrilets, S. & Losos, J.B. 2009. Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323: 732-737 - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. & R. Harwood 1977. Notes on Population Density, Vagility, and Activity Patterns of the Puerto Rican Grass Lizard, Anolis pulchellus (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Journal of Herpetology 11 (3): 363-368. - get paper here
  • Goto, M.M. & M.A. Osborne 1989. Nocturnal Microhabitats of Two Puerto Rican Grass Lizards, Anolis pulchellus and Anolis krugi Journal of Herpetology 23 (1): 79-81. - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1932. Herpetological notes from the Puerto Rico area. J. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico 16 (1): 161-165
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Grobman, A.B. 1983. The lizards of Virgin Gorda. Naturegraph Publ., Inc., Happy Camp, CA:5-23.
  • Heatwole, H., D.S. Sade & R. Hildreth 1963. Herpetogeography of Puerto Rico. I. Herpetofauna of Cayo Santiago and Cayo Batata. Carib. J. Sci. 3 (1): 1-5.
  • Heatwole, H.; Ortiz, E.;Diaz-Collazo, A. M.;Jiminez-Velez, A. R. 1962. Aquatic tendencies in the Puerto Rican pasture-lizard, Anolis pulchellus. Herpetologica 17 (4): 272-274 - get paper here
  • Huie, Jonathan M; Ivan Prates, Rayna C Bell, Kevin de Queiroz 2021. Convergent patterns of adaptive radiation between island and mainland Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2021;, blab072, - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Mayer,G.C. & Lazell,J. 1988. Distributional records for reptiles and amphibians from the Puerto Rico Bank. Herpetological Review 19 91): 23-24 - get paper here
  • Medina, Iliana; Jonathan B. Losos andD. Luke Mahler 2016. Evolution of dorsal pattern variation in Greater Antillean Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12881 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1978. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. II. 1975-1976. Herpetologica 34 (1): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724.
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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