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Anolis rubribarbaris (KÖHLER, MCCRANIE & WILSON, 1999)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymNorops rubribarbaris KÖHLER, MCCRANIE & WILSON 1999
Norops rubribarbaris — KÖHLER 2000: 63
Norops rubribarbaris — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis rubribarbaris — TOWNSEND et al. 2008
Norops rubribarbaris — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops rubribarbaris — MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 2015: 161
Norops rubribarbaris — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHonduras (Santa Bárbara)

Type locality: Honduras, Departamento de Santa Bárbara,
N slope of Montaña de Santa Bárbara, 4 km S of San Luís de los Planes, elevation 1700 m.  
TypesHolotype: UF 90206 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized species (SVL of single adult specimen 47.5 mm) differing from all otherNorops by the following combinationof characters: body shape very slender; tail length/SVL ratio of 2.5; dorsal scales about same size as ventral scales; è ank scales heterogeneous;ventral scales strongly keeled; about eight rows of irregularly enlargedmedial dorsal scales; longest toe of adpressed hind limb reaching between ear opening and posterior margin of eye; one scale between supraorbital semicircles; é ve rows of loreal scales; suboculars and supralabials in contact; 25-26 lamellae under penultimate and antepenultimate phalanges of fourth toe; a pair of enlarged postanal scales in males; and a small red dewlap with tan gorgetal scales. Within the crassulus group, Norops rubribarbaris differs from N. laeviventris (includes
N. intermedius) and N. nebulosus by its greatly enlarged medial dorsal scales (only slightly enlarged in N. laeviventris and N. nebulosus); greater relative tail length (TL/SVL ratio of 2.5 vs. 1.6-1.8); and the small, red male dewlap (very small and without particular coloration in N. laeviventris, very large and yellow in N. nebulosus). Norops rubribarbaris differs from N. amplisquamosus by having dorsal scales that grade grading into è ank scales (dorsal scales abruptly enlarged in amplisquamosus) and a red dewlap in males (bright orange in amplisquamosus). Norops rubribarbaris can be distinguished from N. heteropholidotus, N. sminthus, and N. wermuthi, by having strongly keeled ventral scales (faintly keeled in N. sminthus and N. wermuthi, smooth in N. heteropholidotus) and a very slender body shape (versus stout).
Within the cluster of crassulus-like anoles, Norops rubribarbaris can be distinguished from N. anisolepis, N. crassulus, and N. haguei by the following characters: slender versus stout body; tail length/SVL ratio of 2.5 versus < 2.4, usually < 2.2; 4 versus 5-9 scales between second canthals; 8 versus 10-23 (usually 12-15) rows of enlarged dorsal scales; about 29 versus 13-27 ventral scales in a head length. Norops rubribarbaris differs further from N. crassulus by lacking a pale lateral stripe which is usually present in N. crassulus. See table 1 for a comparison of selected morphometric and pholidosis characters between N. anisolepis, N. crassulus, N. haguei and N. rubribarbaris.

Diagnosis. Anolis rubribarbaris differs from all other Mesoamerican anoles, except those in the crassulus group, by having the following combination of characteristics: red dewlap, moderately to strongly enlarged medial dorsal scales, strongly keeled ventral scales, no more than one scale separating the supraorbital semicircles, four to five rows of loreals, suboculars and supralabials in contact, no axillary pocket, and heterogeneous flank squamation. Of the members of the crassulus group, A. rubribarbaris differs from A. amplisquamosus in having a red dewlap and enlarged middorsal scales grading into the dorsolateral scales (dewlap bright orange and middorsal scales abruptly larger than adjacent dorsolateral scales in A. amplisquamosus), from A. heteropholidotus, A. muralla, A. sminthus, and A. wermuthi in having strongly keeled ventral scales (ventral scales smooth or weakly keeled in A. heteropholidotus, A. sminthus, and A. wermuthi and smooth in A. muralla), and from A. anisolepis, A. crassulus, and A. haguei by having 8–11 rows of enlarged dorsal scales (usually 12–15 and as high as 23 in A. anisolepis, A. crassulus and A. haguei). This species can be distinguished from A. sp. (Townsend and Wilson, In press), and further differentiated from A. wermuthi, by having a hemipenis with an undivided asulcate processus (asulcate processus divided in A. sp. and A. wermuthi). [from TOWNSEND et a. 2008] 
CommentSpecies group: Norops sagrei species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin words ruber (red) and barba (the beard) and the Latin sufé x -aris (pertaining to). The name refers to the red colored dewlap of the adult males of this species. 
  • Hofmann, E. P., & Townsend, J. H. 2017. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17(1), 267 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, E.P., Townsend, J.H. 2020. Origins and biogeography of the Anolis crassulus subgroup (Squamata: Dactyloidae) in the highlands of Nuclear Central America. BMC Evol Biol 17, 267 (2017) - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler,G., McCranie,J.R. & Wilson,L.D. 1999. Two new species of anoles of the Norops crassulus group from Honduras (Reptilia: Sauria: Polychrotidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (3): 279-298 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. and Gunther Köhler 2015. The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Special Publication Series, No. 1): 1-280 [review in Q. J. Biol. 91: 227] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2001. Neuerungen in der Systematik der mittelamerikanischen Saumfinger der Gattung Norops seit 1996. Iguana Rundschreiben 14 (2): 19-28
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Townsend, Josiah H.; Larry David Wilson 2009. New Species of Cloud Forest Anolis (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in the crassulus Group from Parque Nacional Montaña de Yoro, Honduras. Copeia, 2009 (1): 62-70 - get paper here
  • Townsend, Josiah H.; Wilson, L.D.; Luque-Montes, I.R. & Ketzler, L.P. 2008. Redescription of Anolis rubribarbaris (Köhler, McCranie, & Wilson 1999), a poorly-known Mesoamerican cloud forest anole (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 1918: 39–44 - get paper here
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