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Anolis trachyderma COPE, 1875

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Roughskin Anole, Common Forest Anole
Portuguese: Papa-vento 
SynonymAnolis trachyderma COPE 1876: 168
Anolis trachyderma — BOULENGER 1885: 87
Anolis leptoscelis BOULENGER 1885: 92
Anolis macropus COPE 1885: 101
Anolis garbei AMARAL 1933: 62
Anolis trachyderma — DUELLMAN 1978: 201
Norops trachyderma — SAVAGE & GUYER 1989: 110
Norops trachyderma — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops leptoscelis — LEHR 2002: 203
Norops trachyderma — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops trachyderma — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPeru, Brazil (Pará, Amazonas etc.), S Colombia, Ecuador

Type locality: Nauta, Peru.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 11363
Holotype: ANSP 11403 [Anolis macropus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A brownish/greyish anole with granular, weakly keeled dorsals, and larger (but relatively small), smooth or weakly keeled ventrals; 115-160 scales around midbody. Digital expansions well-developed, expanded lamellae under fourth toe about twice as wide as distal phalanx. Scales on posterior part of snout relatively small, keeled. Supraorbital semicircles separated by two or three, occasionally one, scales. Suboculars mostly separated from supralabials by one row of scales (occasionally just in contact). Tibia length 0.27-0.33 (0.30 ± 0.01) times the SVL. One or more narrow, light stripes across anterior part of chin; narrow, slightly oblique light stripes across limbs. Dewlap orange/red, moderately large in males, smaller in females. Maximum SVL 58 mm (from Avila-Pires 1995: 111).

Description. Anole with maximum SVL in males of 52 mm (KU 130214), in females of 58 mm (Duellman, 1978). Head 0.23-0.28 (n= 36) times SVL, proportionally slightly larger in females than in males; 1.2-1.8 (1.62 ± 0.10, n= 36) times as long as wide, and 1.0-1.4 (1.23 ± 0.08, n= 36) times as wide as high. Snout blunt, frontal region with a shallow depression. Neck narrower than head and body. Body cylindrical. Limbs relatively long, forelimbs 0.39-0.48 (0.44 ± 0.02, n= 30) times SVL, hind limbs 0.83-0.95 (0.89 ± 0.03, n= 30) times, tibia 0.24-0.29 (0.27 ± 0.01, n= 35) times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 1.7-2.1 (n= 28) times SVL, tending to be slightly longer in males than in females.
Tongue wide, villose, tip nicked. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth tricuspid.
Rostral rectangular, about four times as wide as high, slightly oblique (upper part more prominent than lower part), just visible from above. Postrostrals 7-8, rarely six, including anterior nasal at each side. Scales on snout relatively small, polygonal, juxtaposed, keeled, larger toward posterior canthals; 11-18 (mostly 12-15) scales across snout at level of second canthal. Canthus rostralis well defined, with 5-9 canthals, anterior ones small, reaching nasals. Supraorbital semicircles rather inconspicuous, in some specimens only distinct medially; with 5-11, mostly eight, distinct scales; separated from each other by two or three, occasionally one, scales. Supraocular region with a group of enlarged, polygonal, keeled scales near supraorbital semicircle, smaller toward supraciliaries, except for one scale bordering first supraciliary, granular anteriorly and posteriorly. Supraciliaries 1-3 (mostly 2), elongate, partially overlapping, occupying about half of orbital length, posteriorly followed by granules; first longest. Occipital region with irregularly polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed scales, smaller posteriorly; interparietal several times larger than adjacent scales, separated from supraocular semicircles by 2-3, occasionally four, scales. Parietal region with granular scales, with a gradual change toward occipital region. Loreal scales polygonal, juxtaposed, in approximately longitudinal rows, slightly wider toward supralabials; row adjacent to canthals with a median keel, others with a keel on their lower margin; 5-8, mostly 6-7, scales in a vertical row at level of second canthal. Suboculars 4-8, slightly enlarged, keeled (in some cases only arbitrarily separated from adjacent scales), either completely separated from supralabials by a row of scales, or with one (rarely two) scales in contact. Supralabials 8-10, 7-9 to below centre of eye. Temporal region with small, granular scales, separated from eyelids by a few rows of slightly larger scales, and from parietal region, anteriorly, by a double, inconspicuous row of scales. Eyelids covered with granules, with two rows of larger scales bordering the rim. Ear-opening moderately large, vertically oval, its lower margin at level of, or slightly lower than, level of commissure of mouth; with smooth margin and short auditory meatus.
Mental medially divided, each half roughly trapezoid; bordered by first infralabial at each side, and 5-9 (most commonly 6-8) postmentals, which decrease in sizemedially. Infralabials 9-14, 8-12 to below centre of eye. Chin with larger, hexagonal, keeled, juxtaposed scales laterally, similar but distinctly smaller scales, in approximately longitudinal rows, medially; anterior part of chin medially divided by a sulcus. Dewlap with elongate, crescent-moon-like scales laterally, which form longitudinal rows separated by naked skin, and shorter, imbricate, half-moon-like scales along rim; in males dewlap reaches level of forelimbs or slightly beyond, in females it is distinctly smaller. Nape with granular scales, similar to dorsals.
Dorsals and scales on flanks granular, toward vertebral area becoming slightly larger, flat, and keeled; a double row of vertebral scales may be present. Ventrals small, although distinctly larger than dorsals, roundish, subimbricate, smooth or some of them weakly keeled, becoming smooth toward midventral area. Gradual transition between scales on flanks and ventrals. Scales around midbody 118-156 (139.3 ± 9.1, n= 32). Preanal plate with scales similar to ventrals, but smaller.
Base of tail with numerous small, keeled, imbricate scales, slightly larger ventrally. Distally scales distinctly larger, imbricate, in longitudinal rows, keels forming longitudinal ridges; scales on ventral surface slightly larger. Tail posteriorly divided into rather indistinct verticils.
Forelimbs with rhomboid, keeled, slightly imbricate scales on anterior and dorsal aspects of both upperand forearms, and on posterior aspect of forearms; slightly smaller and smooth scales on ventral aspect; and granular scales on posterior aspect of upper arms. Thighs with polygonal, keeled scales, slightly imbricate on anterior and dorsal aspects, granular on posterior aspect, and roundish, smooth ventrally. Lower legs with polygonal, keeled, slightly imbricate scales all around. Digital expansions well developed; 21-26 (23.5 ± 1.1, n= 68, 35 specimens) lamellae under fourth finger, 13-17 (15.5 ± 0.8, n= 69,35 specimens) to end of digital expansion; 31-39 (34.2 ± 1.9, n= 67, 34 specimens) lamellae under fourth toe, 23-30 (25.8 ± 1.6, n= 68, 34 specimens) to end of digital expansion (from Avila-Pires 1995: 112).

Coloration: In life, dorsal region usually composed of several hues of brown, with a predominance of dark brown (MPEG 15948, RMNH 25901), or dusky-brown (19) (MPEG 15974-976, RMNH 25903-905). In RMNH 25900 head dorsally predominantly marsbrown (223A), posteriorly plumbeous (78); a dark transverse band was present across eyes; back middorsally also plumbeous, dorsolaterally natal-brown (219A), flanks drab-grey (119D) and natal-brown. RMNH 25902, when collected (sleeping, at night), had a distinct pattern along vertebral region of rhomboid figures bordered by dark triangles; immediately after capture the animal became generally darker, and the pattern faded out. Similarly, R M N H 25907 showed a light band along vertebral area, which disappeared soon after capture. Limbs dorsally with light transverse stripes, which in RMNH 25900 were pale-pinkish-brown (121D) on forelimbs, lightrusset-vinaceous (221D) on hind limbs; in MPEG 15948 they were, respectively, drabgrey (119D) and orange, and in MPEG 15974-976 and RMNH 25902-905 pale brown, on hind limbs mostly with an orange tinge. Ventrally, head grey, greyish-white, greyish-brown with some purplish tinge, or dusky-brown, always with irregular, transverse, whitish stripes, especially anteriorly. Dewlap spectrum-orange (17) (RMNH 25899, RMNH 25901, MPEG 15948), chrome-orange (16) (RMNH 25902-905, MPEG 15974-976), orange (MPEG 15932), or, in MPEG 15879 and RMNH 25900, mainly chrome-orange (16), toward rim becoming orange-yellow (18); in all cases with dark (brown) scales. RMNH 24657 and RMNH 24663 were described by M.S. Hoogmoed (field notes) as having a red dewlap. Belly sulphur-yellow (57) in two juveniles (RMNH 25899, RMNH 25908), buff-yellow (53) in a third one (MPEG 15932); pale yellow in the series MPEG 15974-976 and RMNH 25902-905, but paler, almost white, in the largest specimens (females); in RMNH 25901, a female, belly pale-horn-colour (92), and in RMNH 25900 and MPEG 15948, males, white. MPEG 15948 and RMNH 25901 presented a pale brown area along belly, midventrally, while ventrolaterally it was sepia (219). Colour of tail similar to that of body in RMNH 25900, RMNH 25901, and MPEG 15948, except on its ventral side, distally, where it became (dark) greyishbrown; in RMNH 25899 ventral surface of limbs and tail olive-yellow (52), and in MPEG 15932 greyish-brown. Iris (dark) brown with a narrow orange-brown rim around pupil in RMNH 25899 and MPEG 16002, brilliant orange-brown with a lighter rim around pupil in RMNH 25900, bronze in RMNH 25903. Tongue greyish-white, slightly darker anteriorly (MPEG 15974-976, RMNH 25902-905).
Descriptions of colour in life are also given by Vanzolini (1972), Dixon & Soini (1975,1986), and Duellman (1978) (from Avila-Pires 1995: 114). 
CommentSpecies group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
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  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cañas-Orozco, J. 2015. Auf Exkursion durch den kolumbianischen Amazonas-Regenwald. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (115): 86-95 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. Report on the Reptiles brought by Professor James Orton from the middle and upper Amazon and western Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 159-183 [sometimes thought to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. Catalogue of the species of batrachians and reptiles contained in a collection made at Pebas, Upper Amazon, by John Hauxwell. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 94-103 [1885] - get paper here
  • Dixon, J. R.; Soini, P. 1975. The reptiles of the upper Amazon basin, Iquitos region, Peru, Part I. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 4: 1-58 [1986?]
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Fonseca, Wirven Lima da; Julivaldo Dantas da Silva, Arthur Diesel Abegg, Conrado Mario da Rosa, Paulo Sergio Bernarde 2019. Herpetofauna of Porto Walter and surrounding areas, Southwest Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 91-107 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira. 9(2): 121 – 214
  • Huie, Jonathan M; Ivan Prates, Rayna C Bell, Kevin de Queiroz 2021. Convergent patterns of adaptive radiation between island and mainland Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2021;, blab072, - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Metcalf, Matthew; Alexander Marsh, Emerson Torres, Devon Graham, Charles Gunnels 2020. Herpetofauna of the Santa Cruz Forest Preserve in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Herpetology Notes 13: 753-767 - get paper here
  • Morales, Victor R. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Anolis trachyderma. Herpetological Review 28 (2): 95 - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
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  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Marie Altmanová, Martina Pokorná and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2014. CONSERVED SEX CHROMOSOMES ACROSS ADAPTIVELY RADIATED ANOLIS LIZARDS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12357 - get paper here
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  • Vitt, Laurie J., Teresa Cristina S. Avila-Pires, Peter A. Zani and Maria Cristina Espósito 2002. Life in shade: The ecology of Anolis trachyderma (Squamata: Polychrotidae) in Amazonian Ecuador and Brazil, with comparisons to ecologically similar anoles. Copeia 2002 (2): 275-286 - get paper here
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
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