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Anolis valencienni DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

IUCN Red List - Anolis valencienni - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Jamaican Twig Anole, Short-tail Anole
G: Schwertschwanz-Anolis 
SynonymAnolis Valencienni DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 131
Dactyloa valencienni — FITZINGER 1843: 67
Placopsis ocellata GOSSE 1850: 346
Anolis leucocephalus HALLOWELL 1856: 226
Xiphocercus valenciennii — COPE 1864: 168
Xiphocercus valenciennesii — BOULENGER 1885: 9
Xiphocercus valenciennesi — BARBOUR 1920: 62
Xiphocercus valenciennesi — GRANT 1940: 81
Anolis valenciennessi — ETHERIDGE 1960: 92
Norops valencienni — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 161
Anolis valencienni — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 350
Norops valencienni — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis valencienni — LOSOS 2007
Norops valencienni — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops valencienni — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 

Type locality: Unknown. GOSSE (1850, cited in SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975) states “Cave in Southern Westmoreland Parish, Port Antonio”.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 2446
Holotype: ANSP 8035 [Anolis leucocephalus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 80 mm, in females to 65 mm); 2-4
rows of loreals; 0-1 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 0-1 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; scales behind interparietal grade gradually into dorsals; 3-5 postrostrals; 4 postmentals; suboculars in contact with supra- labials; dorsal and lateral scales flat, smooth, juxtaposed, with tiny intersitial granules; ventrals flat, smooth; supradigital scales smooth; 5-7 vertical scales/10th caudal verticil. Dorsal ground color gray to brown; 5--6 irregular black bands across dorsum; occipital and temporal regions with dark markings; labials with or without dark spots, frequently tinged with sulfur-yellow; limbs with irregular, dark markings; tail with dark transverse bands; dewlap grayish yellow, creamy red or purple-red; scales of dewlap white; venter white; females similar in color to males (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 350). 
CommentFor illustrations see Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Type species: Anolis Valencienni DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837 is the type species of the genus Xiphocercus FITZINGER (diagnosed by BOULENGER 1885 and later by BARBOUR 1920: 62).

Species group: Norops valencienni species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Karyotype: 2n=30, XY (males) or XX (females) (Giovannotti et al. 2016) 
EtymologyNamed after Achille Valenciennes (1794-1865), zoologist, ichthyologist, and conchologist who worked as an Assistant, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
  • Barbour, T. 1910. Notes on the herpetology of Jamaica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 52: 273—301 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1920. A note on Xiphocercus. Proc. New England zool. Club 7: 61-63 - get paper here
  • Bartelt, U. 2008. Anolis (Norops) valencienni. Iguana Rundschreiben 21 (2): 31-34
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Etheridge, Richard E. 1960. PhD thesis - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • GARNER, AUSTIN M.; MICHAEL C. WILSON, CAITLIN WRIGHT, ANTHONY P. RUSSELL, PETER H. NIEWIAROWSKI & ALI DHINOJWALA. 2022. Parameters of the adhesive setae and setal fields of the Jamaican radiation of anoles (Dactyloidae: Anolis): potential for ecomorphology at the microscopic scale. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 137(1): 85–99. - get paper here
  • Giovannotti, M.; & V. A. Trifonov, & A. Paoletti & I. G. Kichigin & P. C. M. O’Brien & F. Kasai & G. Giovagnoli & B. L. Ng & P. Ruggeri & P. Nisi Cerioni & A. Splendiani & J. C. Pereira, & E. Olmo & W. Rens & V. Caputo Barucchi, & M. A. Ferguson-Smit 2016. New insights into sex chromosome evolution in anole lizards (Reptilia, Dactyloidae). Chromosoma 126 (2): 245–260 | Cite as DOI 10.1007/s00412-016-0585-6 - get paper here
  • Gosse, P. 1850. Description of a new genus and six new species of saurian reptiles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 6: 344-348. - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1940. The herpetology of Jamaica Il. The reptiles. Bull. Inst. Jamaica., Sci. Ser. 1: 61-148.
  • Hallowell, E. 1856. Notes on reptiles in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 221-238 - get paper here
  • Hilgenhof, R. & hilgenhof, R.J. 2004. Zur Kenntnis, Haltung und Nachzucht des Schwertschwanz-Anolis (Anolis valencienni DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837). Reptilia (Münster) 9 (45): 72-76 - get paper here
  • Hilgenhof, R. J. 1998. Eine herpetologische Reise nach Nordost - Jamaika unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Anolis Daudin, 1802 - Teil I. Sauria 20 (2): 15-27 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597 - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. & Schneider, C.J. 2009. Anolis lizards. Current Biology 19 (8): R316-R318 - get paper here
  • Macedonia, Joseph M.; David L. Clark, and Alison L. Tamasi 2014. Does Selection Favor Dewlap Colors that Maximize Detectability? A Test with Five Species of Jamaican Anolis Lizards. Herpetologica Jun 2014, Vol. 70, No. 2: 157-170. - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rand,A.S. 1967. The ecological distribution of the anoline lizards around Kingston, Jamaica. Breviora (272): 1-18 - get paper here
  • Schoener, Thomas W.;Schoener, Amy 1971. Structural habitats of West Indian Anolis lizards I. Lowland Jamaica. Breviora (368): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • WERNING, Heiko 2012. Im Bad mit Anolis – ein Besuch bei Uwe Bartelt. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (6): 88-92 - get paper here
  • Williams, E. E.; Rand, A. S. 1977. Species recognition, dewlap function and faunal size. American Zoologist 17: 261-270 - get paper here
  • Wilson, B.S. & Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the Blue-tailed Galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Carib. J. Sci. 36: 244-249
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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