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Apostolepis dimidiata (JAN, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Common bilineate Blackhead
Portuguese: Cobra-Coral, Coral, Coral-Falsa, Falsa-Coral 
SynonymElapomojus dimidiatus JAN 1862: 42
Elapomorphus dimidiatus JAN 1862
Elapomorphus erythronotus PETERS 1880: 222
Elapomoius [sic] dimidiatus — STRAUCH 1884
Elapomorphus erythronotus — STRAUCH 1884: 379
Elapomorphus dimidiatus — STRAUCH 1884: 587
Apostolepis erythronota — BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Elapomoius [sic] dimidiatus — BOULENGER 1896: 238
Apostolepis nigriceps WERNER 1897
Elapomohoeus [sic] dimidiatus — BERG 1898
Elapomoius [sic] dimidiatus — KOSLOWSKY 1898
Apostolepis erythronata — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Elapomojus dimidiatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 103
Apostolepis ventrimaculata LEMA 1978 (fide LEMA 1993)
Apostolepis villaricae DE LEMA 1978 (fide LEMA 1993)
Apostolepis barrioi DE LEMA 1978 (fide LEMA 1993)
Apostolepis dimidiata — CEI 1993
Apostolepis dimidiata — BAUER 1995: 71
Apostolepis dimidiata — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris dimidiatus — TIPTON 2005 (in error)
Apostolepis dimidiata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 51
Apostolepis barrioi — CABRAL et al. 2017
Apostolepis barrioi — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Paraná [HR 27: 216]), Paraguay [villaricae, barrioi],
Argentina (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco, Formosa)

Type locality: Brazil  
TypesType: MACN 49402 (fide França et al. 2018); but previously reported lost (fide PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 103)
Holotype: MACN 3309, male [barrioi]
Holotype: ZSM 197/0 (lost), adult [Apostolepis nigriceps] 
CommentSynonymy following that of CEI 1993. Apostolepis erythronotus lineatus COPE 1887: 56 has been removed from the synonymo of A. dimidiata. CABRAL et al. 2017 revalidated A. barrioi but they didn’t really show any statistic or genetic analysis that convincingly shows that both are different. In fact, their ranges overlap to a large extent and so do the scale counts the authors presented. The main difference between the two species appears to be the heavily pigmented ventral coloration in dimidiata vs. uniformly white ventral in barrioi (and practically all other Apostolepis). Thus, Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2019 synonymized A. barrioi again with A. dimidiata (while Nogueira et al. 2019 considered it as valid in their Atlas).

Distribution: see map in CABRAL et al. 2017 (for both Apostolepis barrioi and A. dimidiata) and Nogueira et al. 2019. 
  • Braz, Henrique B., Claudia M. Heredias-Ribas and Rodrigo Del Rio Do Valle. 2015. Apostolepis dimidiata reproduction. Herpetological Review 46 (3): 443 - get paper here
  • Cabral, Hugo; Thales de Lema, Márcia Ferret Renner 2017. Revalidation of Apostolepis barrioi (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Phyllomedusa 16 (2): 243-254 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1887. Synopsis of the Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by H. H. Smith in the Province of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 44-60 - get paper here
  • Dainesi, Raiane Lesley Santos; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Paulo Sérgio Bernarde, Bruno Peña Correa, Laís Pio Caetano Machado, Afonso Santiago de Oliveira Meneses, Arthur de Sena Santos 2019. Integrative overview of snake species from Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 419-430 - get paper here
  • FRANÇA, DANIELLA. P. F.; FAUSTO E. BARBO, NELSON J. SILVA-JÚNIOR, HELDER L. R. SILVA, HUSSAM ZAHER 2018. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Elapomorphini) from the Cerrado of Central Brazil. Zootaxa 4521 (4): 438-552 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Giraudo, A. & G. J. Scrocchi 1998. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes: Colubridae) and comments on the genus in Argentina. Herpetologica 54 (4): 470-476 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira. 9(2): 121 – 214
  • Harvey, Michael B. 1999. Revision of Bolivian Apostolepis (Squamata: Colubridae). Copeia 1999 (2): 388-409 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Enumerazione sistematico delle specie d'ofidi del gruppo Calamaridae. Arch. Zool., Anat. Fisiol., 2: 1-76. - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 14. Livraison. [Elapomorphus d’Orbignyi, Coronella getulus var. Sayi]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1898. Enumeración sistemática y distribución geográfica de los reptiles argentinos. Rev. Mus. La Plata 8: 161-200 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de 2004. Nova espécie de Apostolepis COPE do estado de RONDÔNIA, Brasil (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Comunicações do Museu Ciência Tecnologia (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, 17 (2): 81-89
  • Lema, T. de 2016. DESCRIPTION OF NEW SPECIES OF Apostolepis (SERPENTES: DIPSADIDAE: XENODONTINAE: ELAPOMORPHINI) FROM SERRA DO RONCADOR, CENTRAL BRAZIL. Caderno de Pesquisa, série Biologia 28 (1): 1-12 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de & M. F. Renner 2004. New species of Apostolepis from Alto Tocantins, Brazil, with comments on the striped pattern species (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Biociências 12(2): 139-145
  • Lema, T. de & Renner, M.F. 2006. A new species of Apostolepis with striped pattern from Mato Grosso, Brasil (Serpentes, Elapomorphine). Ciência em movimento 8: 13-18
  • Lema, Th. de 1978. Novas especies de opistoglifontes do genero Apostolepis Cope 1861 do Paraguai (Ophidia: Colubridae: Colubrinae). Comunicações do Museu de Ciências DA PUCRGS (PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDADE CATOLICA DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL) (No. 18/19): 27-49
  • Lema, Th. de 1986. Apostolepis dimidiata (Jan, 1862), nova combinacao, e a validade de A. erythronota (Peters, 1880) e A. ventrimaculata Lema, 1978. (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 47-48 [1983-1984]: 71-80 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1993. Polimorfismo em Apostolepis dimidiata (Jan, 1862) com a invalidacao de Apostolepis villaricae Lema, 1978 e Apostolepis barrioi Lema, 1978 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae: Elapomorphini). Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 15 (1): 35-52
  • Lema, Thales de 2001. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae). Cuadernos de herpetología 15 (1): 29-43.
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1880. Eine Mittheilung über neue oder weniger bekannte Amphibien des Berliner Zoologischen Museums (Leposoma dispar, Monopeltis (Phractogonus jugularis, Typhlops depressus, Leptocalamus drilineatus, Xenodon punctatus, Elapomorphus erythronotus, Hylomantis Monatsber. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1880: 217-224 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Tipton, Bob L. 2005. Snakes of the Americas: Checklist and Lexicon. Krieger Publishing Company, Melbourne, Florida [review in Sauria 29 (1): 10]
  • Varela, Esperanza Amalia 1999. Tipos de la colección herpetológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina. [type catalog] Iheringia, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre (87): 57-74
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Ingaramo, María del Rosario; Semhan, Romina Valeria; Etchepare, Eduardo; Acosta, José Luis; Falcione, Ana Camila; Álvarez, Blanca 2014. Herpetofauna de la Reserva Natural Provincial Isla Apipé Grande (Corrientes, Argentina). Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 153-160 - get paper here
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