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Apostolepis thalesdelemai BORGES-NOJOSA, LIMA, BEZERRA & JAMES, 2016

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymApostolepis thalesdelemai BORGES-NOJOSA, LIMA, BEZERRA & JAMES 2016
Apostolepis mariae BORGES-NOJOSA, LIMA, BEZERRA & JAMES 2016
Apostolepis thalesdelemai — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Apostolepis mariae — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Apostolepis thalesdelemai — ENTIAUSPE-NETO et al. 2020 
DistributionBrazil (Ceará)

Type locality: Planalto da Ibiapaba, Murimbeca locality, Ubajara Municipality, State of Ceará, Brazil (03°49‘14,’’S/ 40°54'16.8"W; Datum WGS 84.

mariae: Brazil (Ceará); Type locality: Maciço de Baturité, Sítio Olho d‘água dos Tangarás, Pacoti Municipality, State of Ceará, Brazil (04°14‘13.7’’ S, 38°54'58,6" W; Datum WGS 84  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: UFC (also as CHUFC) 2341, adult female, June 04, 1999, cols. D.M. Borges-Nojosa. Paratypes: Brazil: Ceará State: Planalto da Ibiapaba: Ibiapina Municipality: MCP 19504 (=CHUFC 2337), CHUFC 2340 and CHUFC 2351, Oct 07, 1999, and CHUFC 2342-43, Aug 2, 1998, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Boa Vista locality (03°55‘33,’’S/ 40°50'59,7"W; Datum WGS 84); CHUFC 2437, Dec 19, 1998, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Ladeira do Mucambo (03°54‘37,’’S/ 40°53'0,2"W; Datum WGS 84). São Benedito Municipality: CHUFC 2768-69, Oct 07, 1999, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Sítio Buriti-apuá, Inhuçu locality (04°07‘51,’’S/ 40°50'13,8"W; Datum WGS 84). Ubajara Municipality (3°51‘03,0’’S/ 40°55‘10,9’’W; Datum WGS 84): CHUFC 1349, Nov 1987, col. H. Klein, Sítio Santana; CHUFC 2110, Sep 8, 1997, and CHUFC 2137, Mar 7, 1998, col. F.T. Araújo, Fazenda Buriti (03°49‘56,0’’S/ 40°56'10,0"W; Datum WGS 84); CHUFC 2154, Mar 7, 1998, and CHUFC 2350, Jun 4, 1999, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Sítio Murimbeca; CHUFC 2954, Apr 03, 2008, col. D.M.Borges-Nojosa.

Holotype (mariae): UFC (also as CHUFC) 3131, adult female, November 23, 1997, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa. Paratypes: Brazil: Ceará State: Serra de Maranguape: Maranguape Municipality (03°54'– 04°03' S/ 38°32'–38°40' W; Datum WGS 84): CHUFC 2085, Jun 11, 1997, cols. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, D.C. Lima and B.M. Barguil, Trilha do Pirapora, Castelinho locality; CHUFC 2102, Aug 30, 1997, col. D.C. Lima, Trilha da Rajada locality; CHUFC 2339, Jul 14, 1997, and CHUFC 2347, Jan 29, 1998, col. D.C. Lima, Linha da Serra locality; CHUFC 2208, Feb 19, 1998, CHUFC 2212-13, Aug 27, 1998, and CHUFC 2218, Apr 29, 1998, col. D.C. Lima; CHUFC 2563, Feb 29, 2004, col. J.C.L. Melo. Maciço de Baturité: Guaramiranga Municipality (04°15‘41,4’’S/ 38°55‘59,1’’W; Datum WGS 84): CHUFC 1950, Apr 11, 1986, col. J.J. da Silva, Sítio Água Boa; CHUFC 2067, Mar-Jul 1989, col. D.M.Borges-Nojosa; CHUFC 2345, Aug 15, 1999, and MCP 19503 (=CHUFC 2371), Jan 28, 2000, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Linha da Serra locality. Mulungu Municipality (04°18‘13.6’’S/ 38°59‘40,8’’W; Datum WGS 84): CHUFC 3645, Apr 01, 2011, col. A.J.G. Araújo. Pacoti Municipality (04°13‘29,9’’S/ 38°55‘15,6’’W; Datum WGS 84): CHUFC 2344, Apr 11, 1998, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Santana locality; CHUFC 2338, Dez 15-18, 1997, CHUFC 2346, Jan 11, 1998, and CHUFC 2463, Jan 03, 1999, CHUFC 3132, Nov 23, 1997, col. D.M. Borges-Nojosa, Sítio Olho d‘água dos Tangarás; CHUFC 2732, Dec 2005, and CHUFC 2841, Jun 27, 2006, col. W.C.M. Luz, Sítio Xangrilá; CHUFC 3504, Mar, 1997, col. P.A. Nojosa, Cidade de Pacoti. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Apostolepis thalesdelemai sp. nov. is very similar to A. mariae, being also closer to A. nigrolineata, A. pymi and A. longicaudata. It differs from these and other species of the genus, by the following characteristics: (1) 212-244 ventral scales and 29-38 pairs of subcaudals; (2) without yellow nuchal collar, replaced by a dark brown band covering the first 4 rows of dorsal scales between the paravertebral longitudinal stripes. On the lateral, the presence of a light band with 2-3 scales length or light spot between the first and second paravertebral longitudinal stripes, with depth of 1⁄2, 1 or 2 scales; (3) the presence of a discreet dark cervical collar with 1⁄2, 1 or 2 scales; (4) light lateral spot below the eye, usually occupying the third and fourth supralabial, and other spots in sixth supralabial (absent in A. longicaudata); (5) with five longitudinal dorsal dark brown stripes, a darker vertebral more dark than two pairs of paravertebrals (first pair lighter); (6) fourth and fifth supralabial and temporal in contact with parietal; (7) tip of the tail covered in the dorsal and ventral faces by a terminal black band, but with the last light scale; (8) Anal scale divided.

Diagnosis (mariae): Apostolepis mariae sp. nov. is closer to A. nigrolineata and A. pymi, differing from these (characters in parentheses), and of the other species of the genus, by the following characteristics: (1) snout rounded or slightly acuminate, but not prominent; (2) dorsal coloration of head dark brown (black color in A. nigrolineata); (3) Six supralabials (fourth and fifth in contact with the parietal) and 6-7 infralabials (first to fourth in contact with anterior chinshield); (4) one temporal (0 + 1) separating the sixth supralabial from the parietal (variable in A. pymi); (5) nasal scale in contact with preocular; (6) light lateral spot below the eye, usually occupying the third and fourth supralabials; (7) yellow nucal collar completely or partially split by a thin stripe, with depth of 2- 3 rows of dorsal scales (no collar in A. nigrolineata and collar disrupted in A. pymi); (8) posterior cervical collar with 1-2 scales (present in both); (9) reddish-brown body color on the back and sides (brown in A. pymi), with five longitudinal dorsal dark brown stripes (without in A. flavotorquatus), persistent in the juvenile and adult phases (may be unnoticed in the adult phase of both); (10) dorsal dark brown stripes (one vertebral and two pairs of paravertebrals) with similar wider (second paravertebral stripe wider than other stripes in A. pymi); (11) tip of the tail covered in the dorsal face by a terminal black band, and ventral face clean or with small dark spots (complete in A. pymi); (12) anal divided (anal entired in A. nigrolineata and divided in A. pymi); and (13) 200-255 ventral scales and 23-36 pairs of subcaudals (BORGES-NOJOSA et al. 2016). 
CommentSynonymy: NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 synonymized Apostolepis mariae with A. thalesdelemai. They also compared A. thalesdelemai with A. longicaudata, A. quinquelineata, A. nelsonjorgei, A. niceforoi, A. nigrolineata, A. nigroterminata. 
EtymologyNamed after Brazilian herpetologist Thales de Lema.

A. mariae was named after Mrs. Maria Diva Borges, a good human example and mother of the first author (DMBN). It is also a tribute to all "Marias", a term intended for women who struggle for survival on a daily basis, but without losing their tenderness. 
References
  • Borges-Nojosa, Diva Maria; Daniel Cassiano Lima , Castiele Holanda Bezerra , David James Harris 2017. TWO NEW SPECIES OF Apostolepis Cope, 1862 (SERPENTES: ELAPOMORPHINI) FROM BREJOS DE ALTITUDE IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL. Revista Nordestina de Zoologia, 10(2): 74-94 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
 
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