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Bothrocophias colombianus (RENDAHL & VESTERGREN, 1940)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Colombian Lancehead, Munchique's Rufous Lancehead
S: Equis Colorada de Munchique
S: Equis Gata, Equis Amarilla del Valle del Cauca [rhombeatus]
E: Cat Lancehead, Cauca Valley Yellow Lancehead [rhombeatus] 
SynonymBotrops rhomboatus [sic] GARCIA 1896: 20 (nomen dubium)
Botrops rhombeatus — GARCIA 1896: 20 (plate 2)
Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1940: 15
Trimeresurus microphthalmus — SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943
Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus — PETERS et al. 1970: 49
Porthidium colombianum — GOLAY et al. 1993: 84
Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus — WELCH 1994: 33
Bothrops colombianus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 260
Bothrocophias colombianus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Bothrocophias colombianus — CASTRO et al. 2005
Bothrops rhombeatus — FOLLECO-FERNANDEZ 2010
Bothrocophias colombianus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops rhombeatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 119
Bothrocophias colombianus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113 
DistributionW Colombia (incl. Cauca), elevation 1400-2300 m

Type locality: La Costa, Cauca, Colombia

rhombeatus: Colombia (Valle del Cauca); Type locality: "a orillas de los rios afluentes del Cauca."  
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 23114.
Holotype: undesignated, none given by GARCIA 1896 [rhombeatus] 

Phylogenetics: FENWICK et al. 2009 expect that B. colombianus is part of the Bothrocophias clade based on external morphology, although limited sampling did not allow them to include it in the phylogeny.

Synonymy: McDiarmid et al. 1999 placed Botrops rhomboatus “tentatively” in the synonymy of B. colombianus. FOLLECO-FERNANDEZ 2010 revalidated Bothrops rhombeatus GARCIA 1896, but Ramírez-Chaves & Solari 2014 declared the name unavailable, based on the lack of a type specimen and its uncertain status, and suspect that it may be a synonym of B. asper. B. rhombeatus nested within several clades of B. asper in a phylogenomic study by Salazar‐Valenzuela et al. 2019. However, they did not propose any taxonomic changes.

Distribution: See map in FOLLECO-FERNANDEZ 2010. Reports from ANTIOQUIA (Nicéforo María, 1975) most likely represent individual introductions from Cauca to Antioquia (Luis E Vera Pérez, pers. comm. 7 May 2013). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • Castro, F.; Ayerbe, S.; Calderón, J.J. & Cepeda, B. 2005. Nuevo registro para Colombia de Bothrocophias campbelli y notas sobre B. colombianus y B. myersi (Serpentes:Viperidae). Novedades Colombianas 8(1): 57-64 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Folleco-Fernández, Armando Javier 2010. TAXONOMÍA DEL COMPLEJO Bothrops asper (SERPENTES: VIPERIDÆ) EN EL SUDOESTE DE COLOMBIA. REVALIDACIÓN DE LA ESPECIE Bothrops rhombeatus (GARCÍA 1896) Y DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE. Revista Novedades Colombianas, 10(1): 33-70 - get paper here
  • Garcia,E. 1896. Los Ofidios Venenosos del Cauca. Métodos empíricos y racionales empleados contra los accidentes producidos por la mordedura de esos reptiles. Cali: Librería Colombiana, xv + 102 pp. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • NICÉFORO MARÍA, H. 1929. Observations on some scientific names used by Dr. Evaristo García in his work entitled “Poisonous snakes of Cauca". Magazine of the Colombian Society of Natural Sciences, 18 (103): 189-191
  • OLIVEIRA-DALLAND, LUIS G.; LAURA R.V. ALENCAR, LEANDRO R. TAMBOSI, PAOLA A. CARRASCO, RHETT M. RAUTSAW, JESUS SIGALA-RODRIGUEZ, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI & MARCIO MARTINS. 2022. Conservation gaps for Neotropical vipers: Mismatches between protected areas, species richness and evolutionary distinctiveness. Biological Conservation 275(109750). - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Sergio Solari 2014. Bothrops ayerbei Folleco-Fernández, 2010 y Bothrops rhomboatus García, 1896 (Serpentes: Viperidae) son un nombre no disponible y un nomen dubium, respectivamente. Bol. Cient. Mus. Hist. Nat. 18 (1): 138-141
  • Rendahl, H. & VESTERGREN,G. 1940. Notes on Colombian snakes. Arkiv för Zoologi 33A [1941?] (5): 1-16
  • RIVERA-GÓMEZ, JACKELINE; LUIS ENRIQUE VERA-PÉREZ & JUAN CAMILO MANTILLA-CASTAÑO 2021. Range extension of the Munchique rufous lancehead Bothrocophias colombianus in Colombia. The Herpetological Bulletin (155) - get paper here
  • Salazar‐Valenzuela, D, Kuch, U, Torres‐Carvajal, O, Valencia, JH, Gibbs, HL. 2019. Divergence of tropical pitvipers promted by independent colonization events of dry montane Andean habitats. J Biogeogr. 46: 1826– 1840 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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