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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Moela’s lancehead
P: jararaca-damoela 
DistributionBrazil (Sao Paulo: Ilha da Moela)

Type locality: Ilha da Moela (24°2'57.34"S, 46°15'48.97"W), municipality of Guaruja, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP 89803 (field number Gb 0397), an adult male collected by F.G. Grazziotin, M.R. Duarte, F.R. Ortiz, B. Chaluppe, in a field expedition of Instituto Butantan, on February 5-9, 2018 (Figs. 5, 6).
Paratypes: Ten specimens from the same locality: IBSP 78371, IBSP 89804, IBSP 90047, IBSP 90050, IBSP 90072 (5 males), and IBSP 89806, IBSP 90045-46, IBSP 90048-49 (5 females). Additional specimens: Six specimens from the same locality: IBSP 78413, IBSP 85195 (2 females), and IBSP 89433, IBSP 89805, IBSP 90042-43 (4 males). These are not designated as paratypes because they were kept in captivity before preservation and/or are less-well preserved. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Bothrops germanoi sp. nov. is diagnosed and distinguished from other representatives of the B. jararaca species group by a combination of characters: (1) SVL in adults 512-632 mm; (2) 196-204 ventrals in females, and 190-202 in males; (3) 51-60 subcaudals in females, and 58-66 in males; (4) three anterior intercanthals; (5) two preoculars, with the bottom scale fusioned with upper postlacunal; (6) two postoculars; (7) lacuno-labial present (prelacunal fusioned with the second supralabial); (8) third supralabial usually in contact with the subocular; (9) 22-23 interrictals; (10) 9-10 infralabials; (11) 7-9 subinfralabials in females, and 4-7 in males; (12) symphyseal scale elongated, separating the first pairs of infralabials; (13) usually five gulars; (14) 1-3 interoculabials; (15) 1-3 prefoveals; (16) 0-2 post foveals; (17) a remarkable small creamish spot above the head; (18) postocular stripe bordered in white; (19) 22-25 dorsals in anterior portion of body; (20) 21-24 dorsals at midbody; (21) 15-19 dorsals posteriorly; and (22) lateral blotches trapezoidal anteriorly, triangular posteriorly, and totally filled in brown. From the mainland population of B. jararaca, males and females of the new species can be mainly distinguished by the smaller SVL, relatively larger head, lower number of ventrals, and a relatively longer tail in males (Tables S11, S12). When compared with other island species, the new species is easily distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by several morphologic traits (Tables Sll, S12), but mainly by a smaller head, a greater number of ventrals, and by a greater number of subcaudals in males (see detailed comparison below). (BARBO et al. 2022)

Comparisons with closest species: B. germanoi sp. nov. is distinguished from the mainland populations of B. jararaca by its smaller SVL in adult males (H=19.561, p<0.001) and females (H=18.003, p < 0.001); a slender body; a longer RHL in males (H = 18.242, p < 0.00 l) and females (H = 14.56, p<0.001); a longer RTL in males (H=7.383, p = 0.006); fewer ventral scales in males (H = 12.029, p < 0.001) and females (H = 13.236, p < 0.001); fewer New lancehead snake of the genus Bothrops 11 anterior (H=15.285, p<0.001), p < 0.001), and posterior rows p < 0.001); and fewer interrictals p < 0.001) (Tables S11, S12). median (19.806, of dorsals (23.33, scales (H = 30.96, The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz by a longer SVL in adult males (H = 13.212, p < 0.001) and females (H=9.069, p=0.0026); a smaller RHL in males (H= 13.027, p<0.001), and females (H=9.949, p = 0.001); a longer RTL in males (t= 2.187, p =0.051) and females (t = 2.69, p = 0.02); more ventrals in males (H=l5.049, p<0.001) and females (H=13.168, p < 0.001); more subcaudals in males (H= 13.137, p<0.001) and females (H=9.523, p=0.002); fewer anterior (H=ll.705, p<0.001), median (17.278, p < 0.001), and posterior dorsals (23.33, p < 0.001); and fewer interrictal scales (H = 16.29, p < 0.001). From B. insularis, the new species is distinguished by a smaller SVL in adults males (t = -2.306, p = 0.047) and females (H = 15.077, p < 0.001); a smaller RHL in males (t = -4.608, p=0.001) and females (H=9.296, p = 0.0023); a longer RTL in females (t = -2.941, p = 0.029); more ventral scales in males (H = 26.01, p < 0.00 l) and females (H = 18.973, p < 0.00 I); more subcaudals in males (H = 10.358, p = 0.001); fewer anterior (H=l7.107, p<0.001), median (17.143, p < 0.001), and posterior rows p < 0.001); and fewer of dorsals interrictal (24.927, scales (H = 28.18, p < 0.001). From B. otavioi, the new species is distinguished by the longer SVL in males (H= 10.5, p=0.001), and females (H = 3.922, p = 0.047); smaller RHL in males (H=l0.633, p=0.001) and females (H=4.789, p = 0.002); more ventral scales in males (H = 17.238, p < 0.001), and females (H = 13.495, p < 0.001) ; more subcaudals in males (H=12.024, p<0.001) and in females (H=5.672, p=0.01); fewer median (H=20.212, p<0.001) and posterior rows of dorsals (H = 32.733, p < 0.001); and fewer interrictal scales (H= 12.41,p<0.001). The new species is also distinguished from B. sazimai by a smaller SVL in adults females (t = -2.368, p = 0.039); a longer RHL in males (H = 7.087, p = 0.007) and females (H = 12.694, p < 0.001); fewer ventral scales in males (t = -2.502, p = 0.024) and females (t = -4.169, p < 0.001); fewer subcaudals in males (H = 9.94, p = 0.001); more anterior dorsals (t=3.76, p<0.001); fewer posterior rows of dorsals (t = -2.78, p=0.01); and fewer interrictal scales (H = 18.91, p < 0.001). (BARBO et al. 2022)

Coloration in life: greyish on the dorsal surface, with 16-18 brownish lateral markings irregularly defined, trapezoidal (anteriorly) and triangular (posteriorly), filled in brown, with well-defined dark brown borders opposite and alternate to each other in middle of dorsum. Dorsum of head was pale brown, with two well-defined dark lines on occipital region and neck; well-defined brownish and dark brown, white-contoured postocular stripes, extending from behind eye and covering superior portion of 6th , 7th and 8th supralabials, up to three scales long behind rictual region; gular region mostly whitish-creamish, with infralabials and symphysial lightly stained in grey; venter creamish and immaculate on the ten first ventrals, becoming heavily pigmented afterwards; tail grayish dorsally, covered with irregular small dark brown blotches anteriorly, and uniformly brown posteriorly, with a conspicuous yellowish tail tip; subcaudals heavily pigmented up to the 46th subcaudals, where yellowish tail tip begins. (BARBO et al. 2022)

Variation: Based on the type series of the new species the subinfralabials (right side) in males varies between four (n= 1), five (n= 1), six (n= 3), and seven (n= 5), and in females with seven (n = 2), eight (n = 1), and nine (n = 4). Interoculabials vary between one (n = 5), two (n = 7), and three (n = 5) scales. Scales above 3rd and 4th supralabials vary between zero (n = 4), and one (n = 13). Sexual dimorphism: males have longer RTL (H=8.185, p=0.004), and more subcaudals (t=3.27, p = 0.01) than females. Females have longer RHL (H = 9.076, p = 0.002), and have more infralabial scales than males (7-9 vs. 4-7). (BARBO et al. 2022) 
EtymologyNamed after Mr. Valdir J. Germano, respectfully known as ‘Val’. Mr. Germano has more than 30 years of dedication to the Herpetological Collection of the Instituto Butantan. He is considered one of the most renowned Brazilian experts in snake identification and he has taught and helped countless students, herpetologists, and researchers on their studies on snake ecology, general biology and systematics. 
  • Barbo, Fausto E.; William W. Booker, Marcelo R. Duarte, Betina Chaluppe, José A. Portes-Junior, Francisco L. Franco and Felipe G. Grazziotin 2022. Speciation Process on Brazilian Continental Islands, with the Description of A New Insular Lancehead of the Genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae). Systematics and Biodiversity 20 (1): 1-25 - get paper here
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