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Bothrops insularis (AMARAL, 1922)

IUCN Red List - Bothrops insularis - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Golden Lancehead
G: Insel-Lanzenotter
Portuguese: Jararaca-Ilhoa 
SynonymLachesis insularis AMARAL 1922: 18
Bothrops insularis — AMARAL 1929: 114
Bothrops insularis — PETERS et al. 1970: 46
Bothrops insularis — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 202
Bothrops insularis — WELCH 1994: 33
Bothrops insularis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 261
Bothropoides insularis — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops insularis — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothropoides insularis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113
Bothrops insularis — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Queimada Grande Island, Sao Paulo)

Type locality: Isla Queimada Grande, São Paulo, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 1.996 

Distribution: see map in Barbo et al. 2022: 149 (Fig. 1). 
  • Abrahão, Carlos Roberto; Ligia Grazzielli Amorim, Adriana Melo Magalhães, Carlos Renato Azevedo, José Henrique Hildebrand Grisi-Filho, Ricardo Augusto Dias 2021. Extinction Risk Evaluation and Population Size Estimation of Bothrops insularis (Serpentes: Viperidae), a Critically Endangered Insular Pitviper Species of Brazil. South American Journal of Herpetology 19(1), 32-39 - get paper here
  • Alencar, Laura RV; Martins, Marcio; and Greene, Harry W (January 2018. Evolutionary History of Vipers. eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0027455 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1921. Contribuição para conhecimento dos ofídios do Brasil - A. Parte II. Biologia da nova espécie, Lachesis insularis. Anex. Mem. Inst. Butantan 1: 39-44 + plates - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1922. Contribuicao para o conhecimento dos ofidios do Brazil. Parte i Quatro noves espécies de serpentes brasileires. Anex. Mem. Inst. Butantan 1 (1): 1-37 + plates [1921, but published 1922 fide Costa & Bernils 2015] - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Contribucao ao conhecimento dos ophidios do Brasil IV. Lista Remissiva dos ophidios do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 69-125 - get paper here
  • BARBO, FAUSTO E.; JOÃO LUIZ GASPARINI, ANTONIO P. ALMEIDA, HUSSAM ZAHER, FELIPE G. GRAZZIOTIN, RODRIGO B. GUSMÃO, JOSÉ MÁRIO G. FERRARINI & RICARDO J. SAWAYA 2016. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 4097 (4): 511–529 [erratum in Zootaxa, 4105 (5): 500] - get paper here
  • Barbo, Fausto E.; Felipe G. Grazziotin, Gentil A. Pereira-Filho, Marco A. Freitas, Stephenson H.F. Abrantes, and Marcelo N. de C. Kokubum. 2022. Isolated by dry lands: integrative analyses unveil the existence of a new species and a previously unknown evolutionary lineage of Brazilian Lanceheads (Serpentes: Viperidae: Bothrops) from a Caatinga moist-forest enclave. Canadian Journal of Zoology 100 (2): 147-159 - get paper here
  • Barbo, Fausto E.; William W. Booker, Marcelo R. Duarte, Betina Chaluppe, José A. Portes-Junior, Francisco L. Franco and Felipe G. Grazziotin 2022. Speciation Process on Brazilian Continental Islands, with the Description of A New Insular Lancehead of the Genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae). Systematics and Biodiversity 20 (1): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Bovo, Rafael P.; Otavio A. V. Marques, and Denis V. Andrade 2012. When Basking Is Not an Option: Thermoregulation of a Viperid Snake Endemic to a Small Island in the South Atlantic of Brazil. Copeia 2012 (3): 408-418. - get paper here
  • Bressan, Paulo Magalhães; Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Angélica Midori Sugieda (eds.) 2009. FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, 2009. - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • Cicchi, P.J.P., M.A. Sena, D.M. Peccinini-Seale, and M.R. Duarte. 2007. Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo,Southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 17: 227–240 - get paper here
  • Duarte, M. R. Puorto, G., Franco, F. L. 1995. A biological survey of the pit viper Bothrops insularis Amaral (Serpentes, Viperidae): An endemic and threatened offshore island snake of southeastern Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 30 (1):1-13 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • França, R. C., França, F. G., Rödder, D., & Solé, M. 2022. Historical collection of snakes from Brazil by herpetologist and biogeographer Paul Müller (1940–2010), deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany. Bonn zoological Bulletin 71 (1): 41–49 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY, 144 p..
  • MARQUES, O. A. V. et al. 2009. Repteis. In: Bressan et al., FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, pp. 285-327 - get paper here
  • Marques, O.A.V.; Martins, M & Sazima, I. 2002. A new insular species of pitviper from Brazil, with comments on evolutionary biology and conservation of the Bothrops jararaca group (Serpentes, Viperidae). Herpetologica 58 (3): 303-312 - get paper here
  • Marques, Otavio A. V.; Karina Kasperoviczus, and Selma M. Almeida-Santos 2013. Reproductive Ecology of the Threatened Pitviper Bothrops insularis from Queimada Grande Island, Southeast Brazil. Journal of Herpetology Sep 2013, Vol. 47, No. 3: 393-399. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1966. Über die Inselotter, Bothrops insularis. Salamandra 2 (3): 72-74 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 127-134
  • Santos-Amorim, Ligia Grazziely dos; Carlos Renato de Azevedo, Weverton dos Santos Azevedo, Selma Maria de Almeida-Santos 2019. First record of mating of Bothrops insularis (Serpentes: Viperidae) in nature, with comments on sexual behavior. Herpetology Notes 12: 225-227 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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