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Bothrops sanctaecrucis HOGE, 1966

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Bolivian Lancehead 
SynonymBothrops sanctaecrucis HOGE 1966
Bothrops sanctaecrucis — WELCH 1994: 35
Bothrops sanctaecrucis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 271
Bothrops sanctaecrucis — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops sanctaecrucis — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops sanctaecrucis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 119
Bothrops sactaecrucis — DAL VECHIO et al. 2021 (in error) 
DistributionBolivia (El Beni, Santa Cruz)

Type locality: Rio Sécure, Oromono, Bolivia  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 24575 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Bothrops sanctaecrucis is distinguished from all congeners and from species of Bothrocophias and Bothriopsis by the following combination of characters: (1) lacunolabial present; (2) dorsal keels nontuberculate; (3) infralabials and gulars immaculate; (4) canthorostrals absent; (5) subcaudals divided; (6) ventrals 175–191 and subcaudals 55–65; (7) loreal subtriangular; (8) canthals wide, in contact or separated by 1–3 scales; (9) internasals in contact or rarely separated by 1 small scale; (10) post-ocular stripe absent or dark gray to black and narrow: less than one temporal high; (11) dorsum tan to pale gray with brown X-shaped or “French telephone”-shaped marks first edged in cream then in black; venter, labials, and chin immaculate cream (diffusely pigmented in juveniles); distal one-half of tail black in adults (Harvey 2005: 22). 

Distribution: See map in Harvey 2005: 14 (Fig. 9). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Dal Vechio, Francisco; Ivan Prates, Felipe G. Grazziotin, Roberta Graboski & Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2020. Molecular and phenotypic data reveal a new Amazonian species of pit vipers (Serpentes: Viperidae: Bothrops). Journal of Natural History, 54:37-38, 2415-2437, - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Ferrarezzi, H. & Freire, E.M.X. 2001. New species of Bothrops Wagler, 1824 from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae). Boletim do Museu Nacional, Nova Serie, Zoologia 440: 1-10
  • Harvey, M.B.; et al. 2005. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia. II. The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 74 (1): 1-38. - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Jansen, Martin 2008. Die Lanzenottern der Gattung Bothrops in Bolivien. Draco 8 (33): 50-56 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Miranda Calle, Alejandro Bruno;Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J. 2011. Bothrops sanctaecrucis Hoge 1966 (Squamata: Viperidae). Cuadernos de Herpetología 25 (1): - get paper here
  • OLIVEIRA-DALLAND, LUIS G.; LAURA R.V. ALENCAR, LEANDRO R. TAMBOSI, PAOLA A. CARRASCO, RHETT M. RAUTSAW, JESUS SIGALA-RODRIGUEZ, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI & MARCIO MARTINS. 2022. Conservation gaps for Neotropical vipers: Mismatches between protected areas, species richness and evolutionary distinctiveness. Biological Conservation 275(109750). - get paper here
  • TIMMS, JUAN; JUAN C. CHAPARRO, PABLO J. VENEGAS, DAVID SALAZAR-VALENZUELA, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI, JAIRO CUEVAS, GERARDO LEYNAUD, PAOLA A. CARRASCO 2019. A new species of pitviper of the genus Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the Central Andes of South America. Zootaxa 4656 (1): 099–120 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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