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Brachyorrhos raffrayi (SAUVAGE, 1879)

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Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Ternate Short-tailed Snake 
SynonymAtractocephalus raffrayi SAUVAGE 1879: 62
Brachyorrhos albus var conjunctus FISCHER 1880: 879
Brachyorrhos albus BOULENGER 1893: 305
Brachyorrhos raffrayi — MURPHY 2012
Brachyorrhos raffrayi — DE LANG 2013
Brachyorrhos raffrayi — MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 7
Brachyorrhos raffrayi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 124 
DistributionIndonesia (Ternate)

Type locality: Ternate, Indonesia  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 5174. Other specimens: Ternate: BMNH, and; MNHN 5782 and 1991.1657 (formerly MNHN-RA 5174A); MSNG 30222a–f, 54459–62; MZB 4010, 4009. Type status is not clear and need to be checked since MNHN-RA 4331 is also indicated as holotype as is MNHN-RA 5174 either in catalogues or in publications 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Six upper labials, the third, rarely 3+4, enter the orbit, tallest upper labial is third; very pointed snout. A preocular is present in about 35% of the specimens examined, making it possible to confuse this species with B. albus. (MURPHY & VORIS 2014).

Comparisons: Murphy & Voris 2020 present a table of characters across the species of Brachyorrhos. 
CommentSynonymy after MURPHY 2012. 
EtymologyNamed after French diplomat and zoologist Achille Raffray who donated the specimen to the Paris museum. 
  • Bleeker, P. 1860. Over de Reptiliën-Fauna van Amboina. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 22: 39-43 - get paper here
  • Boie, F. 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis von Oken 20: 508-566. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1879. Neue oder wenig bekannte Reptilien. Verh. naturwiss. Ver. Hamburg N.F. III: 78-103 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1880. Neue Reptilien und Amphibien. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 46 (1): 215-227 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 13. Livraison. [Homalosoma mite]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2013. The snakes of the Moluccas (Maluku), Indonesia. Edition Chimaira, 417 pp. - get paper here
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. FIELDIANA: LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES (8): 1–43 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2007. Homalopsid Snakes: Evolution in the Mud. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, Florida, 249 pp.
  • Murphy, John C.; Mumpuni, Kate L. Sanders 2011. First molecular evidence for the phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic snake genus Brachyorrhos(Serpentes: Caenophidia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61 (3): 953-957 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C.; Mumpuni, Ruud de Lang, David J. Gower and Kate L. Sanders 2012. The Moluccan short-tailed snakes of the genus Brachyorrhos Kuhl (Squamata: Serpentes: Homalopsidae), and the status of Calamophis Meyer. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60 (2): 501-514 - get paper here
  • Sauvage, H. E. 1879. Sur un Rhabdosomien de genre nouveau provenant de Ternate. Bull. Soc. philom. Paris (7) 3: 61-63 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1826. Notice sur l’Erpétologie de l’île de Java; Par M. Boïé. Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie, 9: 233-240. - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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