You are here » home advanced search search results Calabaria reinhardtii

Calabaria reinhardtii (SCHLEGEL, 1851)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Calabaria reinhardtii?

Add your own observation of
Calabaria reinhardtii »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaBoidae (Calabariinae or Calabariidae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Calabar Ground Python, African Burrowing Python
G: Erdpython 
SynonymEryx reinhardtii SCHLEGEL 1851
Calabaria fusca GRAY 1858: 155
Calabaria fusca GRAY 1858: 301
Rhoptrura reinhardti – PETERS 1858
Eryx (Rhoptrura) Reinhardtti [sic] — FISCHER 1879: 91
Rhoptrura petiti SAUVAGE 1884: 202
Calabaria reinhardti – BOULENGER 1893: 92
Calabaria reinhardtii – BARBOZA DU BOCAGE 1903
Calabaria reinhardtii – SCHMIDT 1923: 57
Charina reinhardtii — KLUGE 1993
Charina reinhardtii — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 203
Calabaria reinhardti — GOSSMANN et al. 2002
Calabaria reinhardtii — TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014
Calabaria reinhardtii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 132
Calabaria reinhardtii — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 23 
DistributionSierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, W/C/E, N? Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon (BOULENGER 1900), Guinea (Conakry), Benin, Angola (Cabinda)

Type locality: „Goldküste"  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 1471, unknown sex; RMNH fide KLUGE 1993, apparently in error. 
DiagnosisDescription: There are normally 3 pairs of shields between the frontal and large rostral. On eight specimens an azygous prefrontal is added, and in one specimen there are two azygous shields. There is uniformly a single preocular and two supraoculars. The post-oculars are normally 2 on each side, 2-3 in three specimens, 3-3 in one. The temporals are 3 or 4 in the first row, 4 or 5 in the second. Upper labials 8, third and fourth entering the eye, or frequently the fourth only, third and fourth fused in one specimen, lower labials 9-11.
The scale formula lies between 28-35-28 and 26-32-25. The normal scale count appears to he 28-33-27. The ventrals number from 221 to 234, and the subcaudals from 19 to 27 (Schmidt 1923)

Sexual dimorphism: The sexes are not readily distinguished by the form of the tail, but the claws at each corner of the base are externally visible only in the males (Schmidt 1923).

Coloration: “The general color is dark brown with irregular lighter markings. These become yellowish pink on the sides, and the venter is brown, marked with pink. Tip of head and tail nearly black. Some specimens have a milky white band around the tail about 20 nim. from its tip, still further increasing its superficial resemblance to the head (H. Lang, cited in Schmidt 1923).

Eyes: Iris brown, pupil vertically elongate (H. Lang, cited in Schmidt 1923). 
CommentSynonymy (partly) after A. Schmitz (pers. comm.).

Distribution: not in Benin fide HUGHES 2013 but TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014: 320 list it for Benin. Not in Angola fide Branch 2018 but in Cabinda fide Marques et al. 2018.

Higher taxa: Some recent authors have erected a separate family, Calabariidae, for this genus (e.g. Pyron et al. 2013). Pyron et al. 2014 found that Calabaria nests within the Boidae and hence split up the boas into multiple families. After consultation with the Scientific Advisory Board of the Reptile Database we prefer to maintain Calabaria as a subfamily which avoids paraphyly within (unnecessarily) breaking up the boas into many families.

Type species: Calabaria fusca GRAY 1858 is the type species of the genus Calabaria GRAY 1858.

Type genus: Calabaria Gray 1858 is the type genus of the family Calabariidae Gray 1858 (see also Pyron et al. 2014).

Behavior: When seriously annoyed it rolls itself into a compact ball, the head in the center, which it is very difficult to straighten out. It never tries to bite (H. Lang, cited in Schmidt 1923). 
EtymologyNamed after Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (1816-1882), Danish herpetologist. 
References
  • Aylmer, G. 1922. The Snakes of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone Studies 5: 7-37
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bocage, Barboza du 1903. J. Sci. math. phys. nat. Lisboa, 7 (2): 13.
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1900. A list of the batrachians and reptiles of the Gaboon (French Congo), with descriptions of new genera and species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1900: 433-456 - get paper here
  • Briscoe, M.S. 1949. Notes on Snakes Collected in Liberia. Copeia 1949 (1): 16-18 - get paper here
  • Burger, M.; Branch, W.R. & Channing, A. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles of Monts Doudou, Gabon: Species Turnover Along an Elevational Gradient. California Academy of Sciences Memoir 28: 145–186
  • Carlino, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2015. An Updated Reptile List of Ivindo National Park, the Herpetofaunal Hotspot of Gabon. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50(3): 25-39 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chippaux, Jean-Philippe & Kate Jackson 2019. Snakes of Central and Western Africa. Johns Hopkins University Press, 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Cimatti, E. 2003. Calabaria reinhardtii - African Burrowing Python. Reptilia (GB) (28): 66-67 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1879. Neue oder wenig bekannte Reptilien. Verh. naturwiss. Ver. Hamburg N.F. III: 78-103 - get paper here
  • Gonwouo, Nono LeGrand; Tchassem Fonkwa Arnaud Marius, Doherty-Bone Thomas, Rödel Mark-Oliver 2021. Amphibian and reptiles of a proposed iron ore mining concession in southern Cameroon. Herpetology Notes 14: 1051-1065
  • Gossmann, V.; Lötters, S.; Obame, F. & Böhme, W. 2002. Zur Herpetofauna Gabuns. Teil II: Kommentierte Artenliste der gefundenen Reptilien, Bemerkungen zur Artenvielfalt. Herpetofauna 24 (136): 19-33 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1858. Description of a new genus of Boidae from Old Calabar and a list of W. African Reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1858: 154-167 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1858. Description of a new genus of Boidae from Old Calabar. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 2: 300-301 - get paper here
  • Heise, P. J.;Maxson, L. R.;Dowling, H. G.;Hedges, S. B. 1995. Higher-level snake phylogeny inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Mol Biol Evol 12 (2): 259-65 - get paper here
  • Hortenbach, G. & Hortenbach, H. 1998. Haltung, Verhalten und Nachzucht von Calabaria reinhardtii SCHLEGEL 1851 unter Terrarienbedingungen. Salamandra 34 (2): 157-166 - get paper here
  • Jackson, Kate; Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Lis-Bethy Mavoungou, and Serge Pangou 2007. Amphibians and Reptiles of the LacTélé Community Reserve, Likouala Region, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 75-86 - get paper here
  • Kielgast, J. 2011. Atheris squamigera (Hallowell, 1854). Elaphe 19 (3): 64
  • Klein Kiskamp, Paul 1992. Calabaria reinhardtii, the Calabar ground python. Litteratura Serpentium 12 (6): 148-151 - get paper here
  • Kluge A G 1993. Calabaria and the phylogeny of erycine snakes. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 107 (4): 293-351 - get paper here
  • Knox, Andrew and Kate Jackson 2010. Ecological and phylogenetic influences on maxillary dentition in snakes. Phyllomedusa 9 (2): 121-131 - get paper here
  • Lehmann, H. D. 1971. Notizen über Nahrungsaufnahme und Abwehrverhalten von Calabaria reinhardtii (Serpentes, Boidae). Salamandra 7 (2): 55-60 - get paper here
  • Long, David R. 1994. The African burrowing python [Calabaria reinhardtii]. Reptile & Amphibian magazine (March/April): 53-55
  • Luiselli, Luca;Akani, Godfrey C. 1999. Aspects of the ecology of Calabaria reinhardtii (Serpentes, Booidea) in southeastern Nigeria. Herpetological Natural History 6 (1): 65-71 [1998]
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Ota, H. & Hikida, T. 1987. On a small collection of lizards and snakes from Cameroon, West Africa. African Study Monographs 8 (2): 111-123 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pauwels OSG, Morelle S, Albert J-L, Carlino P, Rahola N, Trape J-F. 2019. New reptile records from Lékédi Park and Haut-Ogooué Province, southeastern Gabon. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1) [General Section]: 143–161 (e174) - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande Weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P. 2008. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica I. Hamadryad 32 (1): 13 – 18
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1858. Über eine neue Schlangengattung, Rhoptrura. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1858 (Juni): 340-341. - get paper here
  • Pols, J.J. van der 1981. Eetgedrag van Calabaria reinhardtii [Feeding habits of Calabaria reinhardtii]. Litteratura Serpentium 1 (5): 183-185 - get paper here
  • Pols, J.J. van der 1983. Eggs of the Calabar ground python Calabaria reinhardtii. Litteratura Serpentium 3 (5): 153-156 - get paper here
  • Portik DM, Jongsma GFM, Kouete MT, Scheinberg LA, Freiermuth B, Tapondjou WP, Blackburn DC. 2016. A survey of amphibians and reptiles in the foothills of Mount Kupe, Cameroon. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [Special Section]: 37–67 (e131)
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; H.K. Dushantha Kandambi, Catriona R. Hendry, Vishan Pushpamal, Frank T. Burbrink, Ruchira Somaweera 2013. Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 969-978 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Reynolds, R. Graham & Frank T. Burbrink 2014. A Taxonomic Revision of Boas (Serpentes: Boidae). Zootaxa 3846 (2): 249–260 - get paper here
  • Reynolds, R. Graham and Robert W. Henderson 2018. Boas of the World (Superfamily Booidae): A Checklist With Systematic, Taxonomic, and Conservation Assessments. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Sep 2018, Vol. 162, No. 1: 1-58. - get paper here
  • Rödel M O; Mahsberg D 2000. Vorläufige Liste der Schlangen des Tai-Nationalparks/Elfenbeinküste und angrenzender Gebiete. Salamandra 36 (1): 25-38 - get paper here
  • Sauvage, H.-E. 1884. Notice sure une collection de reptiles et de poissons recueillie a Majumba, Congo. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1884: 199- - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1851. Description d’une nouvelle espèce du genre eryx, Eryx reinhardtii. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 3 (1): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146 - get paper here
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Witte, G. F. de 1962. Genera des serpents du Congo et du Ruanda-Urundi. Mus. Roy. de l'Afr. Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium, Ann. (Ser 8o, Sci. Zool.) no. 104 203 pp.
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

https://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Calabaria&species=reinhardtii

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.



Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator