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Calamaria muelleri BOULENGER, 1896

IUCN Red List - Calamaria muelleri - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Calamariinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Mueller’s Reed Snake 
SynonymCalamaria muelleri BOULENGER 1896: 394
Calamaria muelleri — INGER & MARX 1965: 99
Calamaria muelleri — INGER & VORIS 2001
Calamaria muelleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 140 
DistributionIndonesia (Sulawesi)

Type locality: Loca , Mt. Bonthain, Celebes  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: NMBA (= NHM Basel) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Maxillary teeth modified; third and fourth supralabials entering orbit; preocular present; mental touching anterior chin shields; 5 shields and scales surrounding paraparietal; dorsal scales with a light or dark network; subcaudals 21 or less in males and 15 or less in females; portion of rostral visible from above at least equal to length of prefrontal suture; head distinctly tapered in front of eyes (Inger & Marx 1965).

Description. Head distinctly narrowed anteriorly; rostral as high as wide, portion visible from above equal to or longer than prefrontal suture; prefrontal 2/3 length of frontal, touching first 2 supralabials; frontal hexagonal, 1.75 to 3 times width of supraocular, equal to or longer than length of parietal; parietal 1.5 times length of prefrontal; paraparietal surrounded by 5 shields and scales; nasal smaller than postocular; preocular present; neither ocular as high as eye; eye equal to or slightly greater than eye-mouth distance; 5 supralabials, third and fourth entering orbit, fifth the largest, first 4 subequal or second slightly larger; mental triangular, touching anterior chin shields; 5 infralabials, first 3 touching anterior chin shields; both pairs of chin shields meeting in midline; 3 gulars in midline between posterior chin shields and first ventral (Inger & Marx 1965).

Body thickness index 0.007-0.042 (10 specimens); tail gradually tapering to a moderate point; dorsal scales reduce to 4 rows on tail opposite second to eighth subcaudal anterior to terminal scute (Inger & Marx 1965).

Hemipenis forked opposite fifth or sixth subcaudal; retractor beginning opposite seventh to ninth subcaudal, calyces smooth (4 specimens). Cloaca cardioid (1) or bulbous (1) (Inger & Marx 1965).

Teeth: Nine to 11 modified maxillary teeth (8 specimens) (Inger & Marx 1965).

Scale counts: Ventrals: males, 129-155 (mean 146.7; N=30); females, 155-178 (mean 167.7; N=38). Subcaudals: males, 16-21 (mean 18.5; N=29);
females, 9-15 (mean 12.8; N=38) (Inger & Marx 1965).

Total length: males, 116-262 mm.; females, 136 355 mm. Ratio of tail to total length: males, 0.072-0.101 (mean 0.089; N=29); females, 0.041-0.062 (mean 0.050; N=37) (Inger & Marx 1965).

Coloration: brown above, each scale with a fine dark network; scattered scales with dark central spot; spots not forming lines; first scale row usually lighter than those above but without light longitudinal stripe; head brown, densely spotted with blackish brown; a dark stripe usually running from nasal back through eye along lower portion of prefrontal and upper margins of supralabials, descending slightly to include upper half or two-thirds of last supralabial and lower edge of parietal; remainder of supralabials yellow with a dark stripe along lower edge or with dark sutures; underside of head yellow with dark spots; ventrals highly variable but always with dark brown pigment, in the form of small spots in longitudinal rows, in the form of speckling, or as transverse bands along anterior half of each ventral; underside of tail with a broad median brown stripe and a narrower brown stripe along outer edges of subcaudals, the two stripes separated by a yellow stripe; in some specimens underside of tail dark brown with a few isolated spots (Inger & Marx 1965). 
Comment 
Etymologynamed after Friedrich Müller (1834-1895), a friend and colleague of G.A. Boulenger, who worked as physician and zoologist in Basel. 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1896. Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians collected in Celebes by Drs. P. & F. Sarasin. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 17: 393-395 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Grismer, L. L., H. Kaiser & N. S. Yaakob 2004. A new species of Reed Snake of the genus Calamaria H. Boie, 1827, from Pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 28 (1&2): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Howard, S.D. & Gillespie, G.R. 2007. Two New Calamaria (Serpentes) Species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Herpetology 41 (2): 237 - get paper here
  • Inger, R. F. & H. MARX 1965. The systematics and evolution of the oriental colubrid snakes of the genus Calamaria. Fieldiana: Zoology 49: 1-304. - get paper here
  • Inger, R.F. & Voris, H. K. 2001. The biogeographical relations of the frogs and snakes of Sundaland. Journal of Biogeography 28: 863-89 1
  • Koch, A. 2012. Discovery, Diversity, and Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Sulawesi and its offshore islands. Edition Chimaira, 374 pp. [ISBN 978-3-89973-432-4] - get paper here
  • Koch, A.; Arida, E.; Mcguire, J.A.; Iskandar, D.T. & Böhme, W. 2009. A new species of Calamaria (Squamata: Colubridae) similar to C. ceramensis de Rooij, 1913, from the Banggai Islands, east of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Zootaxa 2196: 19–30 - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de & G. Vogel 2005. The snakes of Sulawesi. A field guide to the land snakes of Sulawesi with identification keys. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 25, Frankfurt am Main, 312 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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