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Calamophis sharonbrooksae MURPHY, 2012

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Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Arfak Stout-tailed Snake 
SynonymCalamophis sharonbrooksae MURPHY 2012
Brachyorrhos jobiensis — PETERS & DORIA 1878: 371
Brachyorrhos albus — BOULENGER 1893: 305
Calamophis sharonbrooksae — MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 9
Calamophis sharonbrooksae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 143 
DistributionW Papua New Guinea (Indonesia)

Type locality: Mount Arfak, West Papua, Indonesia (~ 1°05'00"S, 133°58'00"E).  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MSNG 30193-1, a 315 mm adult male collected by A. A. Bruijn, 1875. Paratype. MSNG 30193-2 an adult male, 316 mm in total length, collected at the type locality. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Robust cylindrical body, tail 9.0 to 9.6% of SVL; upper labials three, four, and five about equal in height; rostral to frontal distance greater than parietal seam; dorsal scales uniform brown—no center spot of dark pigment; ventrals 149–150, subcaudals 17–19 (MURPHY & VORIS 2014).

Diagnosis. A robust Calamophis with a cylindrical body, tail 9.0 to 9.6% of the SVL; upper labials three, four and five about equal in height; the rostral to frontal distance is greater than the parietal seam. Dorsal scales are uniform brown—no center spot of dark pigment. All other species have dorsal scales with a dark central spot and a light outer edge. In C. katesandersae the fifth upper labial is the tallest; the body is laterally compressed; and the tail is about 4% of the SVL. C. ruuddelangi has a cylindrical body; and a tail that is about 12% of the SVL (Murphy 2012).

Description of holotype. A 288 mm SVL male with a 26mm tail; tail/SVL = 9.0%. Body cylindrical, slight constriction at base of tail, tail round and somewhat blunt. The rostral not visible from above and separates the single, undivided nasals; nares barely visible from above, centered in the scale; the internasal is small, and about equal to the length of the supraocular; prefrontal, loreal, and preocular are fused to form a PLP shield that makes contact with upper labials and the orbit; upper labials six; upper labials 2–3 make contact with the PLP shield; the 3–4 enter the orbit; 3–4–5 about equal in height; two primary temporal scales, the upper temporal is tiny; secondary temporal indistinguishable from nearby dorsal scales. Lower labials seven; the first pair make contact on the midline of the chin posterior to the mental, first four contact the only pair chin shields. Dorsal scales on the body are smooth and in 19 rows on the neck and at mid body, posterior reduction to 17 rows in front of the vent; dorsal scales immediately over vent fused and plate-like; dorsal scales in the first 4–5 rows above the vent have tubercles, these extend anteriorly five or six ventrals and posteriorly for 2–5 subcaudals. Ventrals 150, rounded, subcaudals divided, 19/19. In alcohol: overall appearance is a small, robust, uniform dark brown, almost black, snake from above; each dorsal scale is uniform brown (no center spot), but the anterior edge of each scale is slightly darker than the rest of the scale; crown same dark brown as dorsum, rostral, lower edge of upper labials cream, lower labials cream on outer edges only; each ventral scale is dark brown with a lighter lateral edge, which forms an indistinct ventrolateral stripe; the ventral side of the tail is slightly darker in colour than the venter of the body (Murphy 2012).

Paratype. MSNG 30193-2 is also a male, 290 mm SVL, 28 mm tail, T/SVL = 9.6%. Its head is damaged on the right side. Ventrals 149; subcaudals 17. It is otherwise like the holotype with the exception of the temporal, it has only one primary temporal on each side; and it has smaller fused dorsal scales over the vent (Murphy 2012). 
CommentThis species is based upon two specimens collected at the same time and same location. 
EtymologyNamed in honour of Sharon E. Brooks, for her work on the homalopsid snakes of Tonle Sap, Cambodia. 
References
  • Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. FIELDIANA: LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES (8): 1–43 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2012. Synonymised and forgotten, the bird’s head stout-tailed snakes, Calamophis Meyer (Squamata: Serpentes: Homalopsidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60 (2): 515-523 - get paper here
  • O’Shea M and Kaiser H. 2016. The first female specimen of the poorly known Arfak Stout-tailed Snake, Calamophis sharonbrooksae Mur- phy, 2012 (Serpentes: Colubroidea: Homalopsidae), from the Vogelkop Peninsula of Indonesian West New Guinea, with comments on the taxonomic history Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [General Section]: 1–10 (e122)
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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