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Calliophis nigrotaeniatus (PETERS, 1863)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Banded Malaysian Coral Snake, Striped Coral Snake
G: Gestreifte Bauchdrüsenotter 
SynonymCalliophis furcates var. nigrotaeniatus PETERS 1863
Adeniophis nigrotaeniatus — PETERS 1871
Callophis intestinalis var. nigrotaeniatus — FISCHER 1885: 3
Elaps sumatranus LIDTH DE JEUDE 1890
Doliophis intestinalis var. everetti BOULENGER 1896
Doliophis intestinalis var. nigrotaeniatus — BOULENGER 1896: 403
Doliophis intestinalis var. sumatrana — BOULENGER 1896: 403
Doliophis intestinalis var. sumatranus — LIDTH DE JEUDE 1922
Maticora intestinalis forma nigrotaeniata — SMITH 1931
Maticora intestinalis nigrotaeniata — LOVERIDGE 1944
Maticora intestinalis everetti — LOVERIDGE 1944
Maticora intestinalis sumatrana — HAAS 1950
Maticora intestinalis everetti — MANTHEY 1983
Maticora intestinalis everetti — MALKMUS & SAUER 1993
Maticora intestinalis everetti — WELCH 1994: 75
Maticora intestinalis nigrotaeniatus — WELCH 1994: 75
Calliophis intestinalis everetti — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Calliophis nigrotaeniatus — FUKUYAMA et al. 2020 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra), peninsular Malaysia (Cameron Highlands), E Malaysia (Borneo: Sabah, Mt. Penrissen; Mt. Kinabalu)

Type locality: Bukit Barisan mountain range (Kepahiang), Sumatra, Indonesia.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 4906, designated by Fukuyama et al. 2020. Paralectotype: ZMB 4885, unlocated fide Fukuyama et al. 2020. Other specimens: ZRC 2.3944, from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah. ZRC 2.3946, 2.3948, from the Cameron Highlands, Pahang. MZB Oph 2176, from Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan, Sumatra. BMNH 1915.12.2.41, from Sungai Kumbang (now Mt. Kerinci, Kerinci Seblat National Park, Jambi, Sumatra). USNM
70849, 70850, from Kepahiang, Bengkulu, Sumatra; KUHE 53910, from Mt. Penrissen, Sarawak.
Holotype: RMNH 4331, from Kaju Tanam (now Kayu Tanam, Padang Pariaman, Sumatra Barat Province, Sumatra, Indonesia) [Elaps sumatranus]
Syntypes: BMNH 1895.11.7.30–31, two specimens from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah; note that Sang et al. 2009 considered the types of everetti as “unknown” [Doliophis intestinalis var. everetti] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes C. nigrotaeniatus from other species of the genus: relatively small body size (maximum SVL: 587 mm), six supralabials, six infralabials, one preocular, two postoculars, 13 scale rows along entire body, anal single, ventrals 209– 230 in males and 216–246 in females, subcaudals 24–29 in males and 22–33 in females, no light vertebral stripe, a pair of gray or dark blue stripes on each side of dorsum, ventrum bright red with 19–46 black bands on ventrals and 2–5 black bands on subcaudals (Fukuyama et al. 2020).

Comparisons. Calliophis nigrotaeniatus can be distinguished from all other species in the group of small, longglanded coral snakes as follows: from C. bilineatus by the color pattern (a pair of gray or dark blue stripes on each side of dorsum and bright red ventrum with 19–46 black bands in C. nigrotaeniatus vs. a pair of white or yellow stripes on each side of the dorsum and white ventrum with 42–56 black bands in C. bilineatus) and fewer ventrals (209–230 in males and 216–246 in females vs. 231–261 in males and 256–285 in females), from C. intestinalis by the color pattern (a pair of gray or dark blue stripes on each side of dorsum, bright red ventrum with black bands and 2–5 tail bands in C. nigrotaeniatus vs. a bifurcated yellow vertebral stripe on dorsum, white ventrum with black bands and 0–3 tail bands in C. intestinalis), a greater relative tail length (7.8–9.9% in males and 6.5–9.5% in females vs. 5.9–8.3% in males and 4.1–5.3% in females), a lower number of ventrals (209–230 in males and 216–246 in females vs. 220–268 in males and 234–292 in females) and more subcaudals (24–29 in males and 23–33 in females vs. 21–26 in males and 17–21 in females), from C. philippinus by the color pattern (a pair of gray or dark blue stripes on each side of dorsum and bright red ventrum with black bands in C. nigrotaeniatus vs. a pair of tan or reddish-brown stripes on each side of dorsum and white ventrum with black bands in C. philippinus) and fewer ventrals (209–230 in males and 216–246 in females vs. 228–252 in males and 237–270 in females) and from C. suluensis by the color pattern (a pair of gray or dark blue stripes on each side of dorsum and bright red ventrum with black bands in C. nigrotaeniatus vs. a pair of tan or reddishbrown stripes on each side of dorsum and white ventrum with black bands in C. suluensis) and more ventrals (209– 230 in males and 216–246 in females vs. 202–207 in males and 209–217 in females) (Table 3) (Fukuyama et al. 2020).

Color in life: dorsal ground color black; a pair of gray or dark blue stripes running on upper end of 3rd to 5th row of dorsal scales on each side of body from nape to tail tip; upper and lower edges of 1st dorsal scale rows often white, becoming gradually faded near tail; an interrupted red vertebral line on tail; top of head reddish-brown with dark spots on prefrontals, frontal, supraoculars and parietals; supralabials bright red and posterior half of 3rd supralabials and anterior half of 4th supralabials black; mental, infralabials, chin-shields and throat bright red; ventrals and subcaudals bright red with 19–46 black bands on ventrals and 2–5 black bands on subcaudals (Fukuyama et al. 2020).

Oiriginal description: Peters (1863) described the coloration of the type specimens of Callophis f. var. nigrotaeniatus as follows: three black and two gray stripes on the dorsum and red (white in alcohol) and black bands on the ventrum. In addition, in the description of Elaps sumatranus, Lidth De Jeude (1890) described the coloration of the type specimen as similar to Callophis f. var. nigrotaeniatus, with three black and two violet stripes on the dorsum and red and black bands on the venter (after Fukuyama et la. 2020).

Boulenger (1896a) further described C. i. everetti (as Doliophis intestinalis var. everetti), as having three black and two gray stripes on the dorsum. 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Golay et al. (1993) synonymized Callophis f. var. nigrotaeniatus with C. i. lineatus (as Maticora intestinalis lineata) and resurrected C. i. thepassi (as Maticora intestinalis thepassi), regarding the populations of C. intestinalis from Borneo as this subspecies. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1886. Ueber eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von der Insel Nias und über eine zweite Art der Gattung Anniella GRAY. Abh. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg 19 (1): 3-10
  • Fukuyama, I., Vogel, G., Matsui, M., Eto, K., Munir, M., Hossman, M. Y., ... & Nishikawa, K. 2020. Systematics of Calliophis intestinalis with the Resurrection of Calliophis nigrotaeniatus (Elapidae, Serpentes). Zoological Science, 37(6) - get paper here
  • HAAS, C.P.J. De 1950. Checklist of the snakes of the Indo-Australian archipelago. Treubia 20 (3): 511-625 - get paper here
  • Lidth DE JEUDE, T.W. VAN 1890. Reptilia from the Malay Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. ln: M. WEBER: Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien. Leiden (E. J. Brill), 1 (2): 178-192.
  • Lidth DE JEUDE, T.W. VAN 1922. Snakes from Sumatra. Zoologische Mededelingen 6: 239-253. - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1944. A new elapid snake of the genus Maticora from Sarawak, Borneo. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 57: 105-106 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. & H. Sauer 1993. Die Folgen eines Bisses von Maticora intestinalis everetti. Salamandra 29 (2): 153-154 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Peters, W. 1871. Uber neue Reptilien aus Ostafrika und Sarawak (Borneo), vorzüglich aus der Sammlung des Hrn. Marquis J. Doria zu Genua. Mber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Berlin [1871]: 566-581 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1863. Über eine neue Schlangengattung, Styporhynchus, und verschiedene andere Amphibien des zoologischen Museums. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1863 (October): 399-413 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1931. The herpetology of Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo, 13455 ft. Bull. Raffles Mus. 5: 3-32.
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
 
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