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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia)

Type locality: Buritirama, state of Bahia, northeast of Brazil  
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 106738, field number MTR 38950, an adult female from Lameirão (10°40'28"S, 43°34'52"W, datum WGS84, elevation 532 m a.s.l.), Buritirama, state of Bahia, northeast of Brazil, collected by M. T. Rodrigues, S. Marques-Souza, M. Teixeira Jr., T. Silva-Soares and T. M. Castro on 2nd November 2016. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: “A species of Calyptommatus characterized by a distinctive frontal scale; absence of supraocular scales; five supralabial scales, the third being the largest and located below the eye; 40–43 dorsals; dorsal scales smooth to slightly keeled posteriorly; five to seven scales covering the hind limbs, most frequently six; dorsal surface of body and tail cream with irregular brown spots; ventral part of body and tail immaculate, without spots.”

Comparisons: “Calyptommatus frontalis is readily distinguished from all described species of Calyptommatus (comparative states in brackets) by the presence of a frontal scale (absent in the remaining species). Furthermore, C. frontalis is distinguished from C. sinebrachiatus and C. confusionibus by having smooth to weakly keeled subhexagonal dorsals arranged in slightly oblique rows (strongly keeled hexagonal dorsals arranged in regular transverse rows).Calyptommatus frontalis also differs from C. confusionibus by the absence of supraoculars (a pair of supraoculars present) and by having five supralabials (four supralabials); from C. nicterus by a creamish dorsal coloration without stripes (brownish dorsal color with a dark lateral stripe) and having mostly six SHL (seven SHL); and from C. leiolepis by smooth to weakly keeled dorsal scales in adults (smooth dorsal scales in adults) and having mostly six SHL (five SHL most frequently).” 
CommentNatural history: Individuals were found buried in the sand under leaf-litter in shaded microhabitats. Like all other Calyptommatus, this species is nocturnal and moves under the sand, just below the surface. 
EtymologyThe specific name refers to the presence of a frontal scale in the new species. 
  • RECODER, R. S., MARQUES-SOUZA, S. E. R. G. I. O., SILVA-SOARES, T. H. I. A. G. O., RAMIRO, C. N., CASTRO, T. M., & RODRIGUES, M. T. 2022. Morphological variation and genealogical discordance in Caatinga sand lizards Calyptommatus Rodrigues 1991 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 5129 (3), 374-398 - get paper here
  • Uchôa LR, Delfim FR, Mesquita DO, Colli GR, Garda AA, Guedes TB 2022. Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil: Detailed and updated overview. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 599-659 - get paper here
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