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Carlia fusca (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1839)

IUCN Red List - Carlia fusca - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Indonesian Brown Skink Carlia 
SynonymHeteropus fuscus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 742
Heteropus leucotaenia BLEEKER 1860 (fide BOULENGER 1887)
Heteropus tricarinatus MEYER 1874 (fide ZUG 2004)
Heteropus tricarinatus var. striata MEYER 1874 (nomen dubium fide ZUG 2004)
Heteropus fuscus — GÜNTHER 1877: 414
Lygosoma fuscum — BOULENGER 1895: 30
Lygosoma fuscum — GARMAN 1901: 7
Lygosoma (Liolepisma) fuscum — STERNFELD 1918: 403
Leiolopisma fuscum — DUNN 1927
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum — SMITH 1937: 225
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum fuscum — BRONGERSMA 1948: 490
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum jamnanum LOVERIDGE 1948: 363
Carlia fusca — MYS 1988: 129
Carlia fusca — ADLER, AUSTIN & DUDLEY 1995
Carlia fusca — DOLMAN & HUGALL 2008 
DistributionAdmirality Islands, Kai (= Kei) Islands, Halmahera (Indonesia), Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea (Irian Jaya), Waigeo. For detailed localities see Mys 1988.

Type locality: Waigeo and Rawack islands; restricted to Waigeo by ZUG (2004: 39).  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 3036, designated by Guibé (1954) by presumption of Holotype (see Brygoo 1985, Zug 2004)
Holotype: MCZ 7677 [jamnanum] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): limbs well-developed with manus reduced to four digits; lower eyelid with a transparent palpebral disc; supranasal scales absent; rostral–frontonasal suture as wide as, or wider than the frontal; frontoparietal scales fused; interparietal small and distinct; ear-opening with enlarged lobules; dorsal body scales strongly keeled; males with conspicuous breeding colours on flanks (Ingram & Covacevich 1989; Cogger 2000; Dolman and Hugall 2008; Wilson and Swan 2008) [fom HOSKIN & COUPER 2012; this may be a partial diagnosis, not including all species].

Definition (Carlia): The clade comprising Carlia munda de Vis, 1845 Gray, 1838, and all species that share a more recent common ancestor with Carlia munda than with Lygisaurus foliorum or Liburnascincus coensis (DOLMAN & HUGALL 2008).

Description (Carlia): A genus of the Carlia group of skinks, maximum adult SVL ranging from 41 to 70 mm; body and head stout, robust, limbs very well developed; usually 7 supralabials; dorsal body scales weakly to strongly keeled; breeding males mostly with bright colours, including red, blue, green and black, often combined with another contrasting pigment; females without bright colours but mostly with a white mid-lateral stripe from axilla to groin, usually 13 premaxillary teeth (Ingram and Covacevich, 1989, DOLMAN & HUGALL 2008). 
CommentSynonymy: Listed as Carlia beccarii by COLIJN’s web site on Indonesia. Carlia beccarii has been removed from the synonymy of Carlia fusca by ZUG (2004: 40). Synonymy partly after ZUG 2004. Heteropus luctuosus PETERS & DORIA 1878: 364 has been removed from the synonymy of C. fusca and is now considered as a valid species.

Type species: Heteropus fuscus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839 is the type species of the genus Carlia GRAY 1845: 271 (FITZINGER 1843; ZUG 2004). Mocoa melanopogon is the type species of the genus Carlia GRAY 1845 (fide GREER 1974).

Phylogeny: Bragg et al. 2018 presented a phylogeny of the genera Lygisaurus, Liburnascincus, and Carlia.

Distribution: not listed for the Solomon Islands (Bougainville Island) by McCoy 2015 although it was listed by McCoy 2000. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin word “fuscus” = tawny or dusky. 
  • Adler,G.H.; Austin,C.C. & Dudley,R. 1995. Dispersal and speciation of skinks among archipelagos in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 529-541 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1895. On a collection of reptiles and batrachians from Ferguson Island, D'Entrecasteaux group British New Guinea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 16: 28-32 - get paper here
  • Bragg, J. G., Potter, S., Afonso Silva, A. C., Hoskin, C. J., Bai, B. Y. H., & Moritz, C. 2018. Phylogenomics of a rapid radiation: the Australian rainbow skinks. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18(1), 15 - get paper here
  • Brongersma, L.D. 1948. Lizards from the island of Morotai (Moluccas). Proc. Koninkl. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C. 51: 486-495
  • Broom, R. 1898. On the lizards of the Chillagoe District, N Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 22: 639-645 [1897] - get paper here
  • Dolman, Gaynor & Andrew F. Hugall 2008. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear data enhance resolution of a rapid radiation of Australian rainbow skinks (Scincidae: Carlia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 782-794 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R. 1927. Results of the Douglas Burden Expedition to the Island of Komodo. III.- Lizards from the East Indies. American Museum Novitates (288): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1901. Some reptiles and batrachians from Australasia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 39: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Greer A E 1982. A new species of Geomyersia (Scincidae) from the Admirality Islands, with a summary of the genus. Journal of Herpetology 16 (1): 61-66 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1877. Descriptions of three new species of lizards from Islands of Torres Straits. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 19: 413—415 - get paper here
  • Hediger, H. 1934. Beitrag zur Herpetologie und Zoogeographie Neu-Britanniens und einiger umliegender Gebiete. Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 65: 441-582
  • Loveridge, A. 1948. New Guinean reptiles and amphibians in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and United States National Museum. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 101 (2): 305-430. - get paper here
  • McCoy, M. 2000. Reptiles of the Solomon Islands. ZooGraphics, Kuranda (Australia), CD-ROM.
  • McCoy, M. 2006. Reptiles of the Solomon Islands. Pensoft Series Faunistica 57, 212 pp.
  • McCoy, M. 2015. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of the Solomon Islands. Michael McCoy, Kuranda - get paper here
  • Meyer, A.B. 1874. Eine Mittheilung von Hern. Dr. Adolf Berhard Meyer über die von ihm auf Neu-Guinea und den Inseln Jobi, Mysore und Mafoor im Jahre 1873 gesammelten Amphibien. Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1874: 128-140 - get paper here
  • Mys, Benoit 1988. The zoogeography of the scincid lizards from North Papua New Guinea (Reptilia: Scincidae). I. The distribution of the species. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique (Biologie) 58: 127-183
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig and G. Doria. 1878. Catalogo dei retilli e dei batraci raccolti da O. Beccari, L. M. D'Alberts e A. A. Bruijn. nella sotto-regione Austro-Malese. Annali del Museo Civico de Storia Naturale di Genova. ser. 1, 13: 323-450 - get paper here
  • Setiadi, M. I. & A. Hamidy, 2006. Jenis-Jenis Herpetofauna di Pulau Halmahera. Kerjasama antara Pusat Studi Biodiversitas dan Konservasi Universitas Indonesia dan Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Puslit Biologi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Sternfeld, R. 1918. Zur Tiergeographie Papuasiens und der pazifischen Inselwelt. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 36: 375-436 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1974. The genus Carlia (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in Western Australia and Northern Territory. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 151-165 - get paper here
  • Walker,J. 1894. A visit to Damma Island, East Indian Archipelago. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 14: 49-59 - get paper here
  • Zug,G. R. 2004. Systematics of the Carlia “fusca” lizards (Squamata: Scincidae) of New Guinea and Nearby Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. 5: 1-83
  • ZUG,G.R. & A. ALLISON 2006. New Carlia fusca complex lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) from New Guinea, Papua-Indonesia. Zootaxa 1237: 27-44 - get paper here
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