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Carlia fusca (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1839)

IUCN Red List - Carlia fusca - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Indonesian Brown Skink Carlia 
SynonymHeteropus fuscus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 742
Heteropus leucotaenia BLEEKER 1860 (fide BOULENGER 1887)
Heteropus tricarinatus MEYER 1874 (fide ZUG 2004)
Heteropus tricarinatus var. striata MEYER 1874 (nomen dubium fide ZUG 2004)
Heteropus fuscus — GÜNTHER 1877: 414
Lygosoma fuscum — BOULENGER 1895: 30
Lygosoma fuscum — GARMAN 1901: 7
Lygosoma (Liolepisma) fuscum — STERNFELD 1918: 403
Leiolopisma fuscum — DUNN 1927
Leiolopisma fusca — BURT & BURT 1932
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum — SMITH 1937: 225
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum fuscum — BRONGERSMA 1948: 490
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum jamnanum LOVERIDGE 1948: 363
Leiolopisma fuscum — WILHOFT 1961
Carlia fusca — MYS 1988: 129
Carlia fusca — ADLER, AUSTIN & DUDLEY 1995
Carlia fusca — DOLMAN & HUGALL 2008 
DistributionAdmirality Islands, Indonesia (Kai = Kei) Islands, Halmahera, Morotai), Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea (Irian Jaya), Waigeo. For detailed localities see Mys 1988.

Type locality: Waigeo and Rawack islands; restricted to Waigeo by ZUG (2004: 39).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 3036, designated by Guibé (1954) by presumption of Holotype (see Brygoo 1985, Zug 2004)
Holotype: MCZ 7677 [jamnanum] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): limbs well-developed with manus reduced to four digits; lower eyelid with a transparent palpebral disc; supranasal scales absent; rostral–frontonasal suture as wide as, or wider than the frontal; frontoparietal scales fused; interparietal small and distinct; ear-opening with enlarged lobules; dorsal body scales strongly keeled; males with conspicuous breeding colours on flanks (Ingram & Covacevich 1989; Cogger 2000; Dolman and Hugall 2008; Wilson and Swan 2008) [fom HOSKIN & COUPER 2012; this may be a partial diagnosis, not including all species].

Definition (Carlia): The clade comprising Carlia munda de Vis, 1845 Gray, 1838, and all species that share a more recent common ancestor with Carlia munda than with Lygisaurus foliorum or Liburnascincus coensis (DOLMAN & HUGALL 2008).

Description (Carlia): A genus of the Carlia group of skinks, maximum adult SVL ranging from 41 to 70 mm; body and head stout, robust, limbs very well developed; usually 7 supralabials; dorsal body scales weakly to strongly keeled; breeding males mostly with bright colours, including red, blue, green and black, often combined with another contrasting pigment; females without bright colours but mostly with a white mid-lateral stripe from axilla to groin, usually 13 premaxillary teeth (Ingram and Covacevich, 1989, DOLMAN & HUGALL 2008). 
CommentSynonymy: Listed as Carlia beccarii by COLIJN’s web site on Indonesia. Carlia beccarii has been removed from the synonymy of Carlia fusca by ZUG (2004: 40). Synonymy partly after ZUG 2004. Heteropus luctuosus PETERS & DORIA 1878: 364 has been removed from the synonymy of C. fusca and is now considered as a valid species.

Type species: Heteropus fuscus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839 is the type species of the genus Carlia GRAY 1845: 271 (FITZINGER 1843; ZUG 2004). Mocoa melanopogon is the type species of the genus Carlia GRAY 1845 (fide GREER 1974).

Phylogeny: Bragg et al. 2018 presented a phylogeny of the genera Lygisaurus, Liburnascincus, and Carlia.

Distribution: not listed for the Solomon Islands (Bougainville Island) by McCoy 2015 although it was listed by McCoy 2000. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin word “fuscus” = tawny or dusky. 
References
  • Adler,G.H.; Austin,C.C. & Dudley,R. 1995. Dispersal and speciation of skinks among archipelagos in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 529-541 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1895. On a collection of reptiles and batrachians from Ferguson Island, D'Entrecasteaux group British New Guinea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 16: 28-32 - get paper here
  • Bragg, J. G., Potter, S., Afonso Silva, A. C., Hoskin, C. J., Bai, B. Y. H., & Moritz, C. 2018. Phylogenomics of a rapid radiation: the Australian rainbow skinks. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18(1), 15 - get paper here
  • Brongersma, L.D. 1948. Lizards from the island of Morotai (Moluccas). Proc. Koninkl. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C. 51: 486-495
  • Broom, R. 1898. On the lizards of the Chillagoe District, N Queensland. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 22: 639-645 [1897] - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E.; Burt, May Danheim 1932. Herpetological results of the Whitney South Sea Expedition. VI. Pacific island amphibians and reptiles in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 63 (5): 461-597
  • Dolman, Gaynor & Andrew F. Hugall 2008. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear data enhance resolution of a rapid radiation of Australian rainbow skinks (Scincidae: Carlia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 782-794 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R. 1927. Results of the Douglas Burden Expedition to the Island of Komodo. III.- Lizards from the East Indies. American Museum Novitates (288): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1901. Some reptiles and batrachians from Australasia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 39: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Greer A E 1982. A new species of Geomyersia (Scincidae) from the Admirality Islands, with a summary of the genus. Journal of Herpetology 16 (1): 61-66 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1877. Descriptions of three new species of lizards from Islands of Torres Straits. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 19: 413—415 - get paper here
  • Hediger, H. 1934. Beitrag zur Herpetologie und Zoogeographie Neu-Britanniens und einiger umliegender Gebiete. Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 65: 441-582
  • Loveridge, A. 1948. New Guinean reptiles and amphibians in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and United States National Museum. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 101 (2): 305-430. - get paper here
  • McCoy, M. 2000. Reptiles of the Solomon Islands. ZooGraphics, Kuranda (Australia), CD-ROM.
  • McCoy, M. 2006. Reptiles of the Solomon Islands. Pensoft Series Faunistica 57, 212 pp.
  • McCoy, M. 2015. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of the Solomon Islands. Michael McCoy, Kuranda - get paper here
  • Meyer, A.B. 1874. Eine Mittheilung von Hern. Dr. Adolf Berhard Meyer über die von ihm auf Neu-Guinea und den Inseln Jobi, Mysore und Mafoor im Jahre 1873 gesammelten Amphibien. Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1874: 128-140 - get paper here
  • Mys, Benoit 1988. The zoogeography of the scincid lizards from North Papua New Guinea (Reptilia: Scincidae). I. The distribution of the species. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique (Biologie) 58: 127-183
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig and G. Doria. 1878. Catalogo dei retilli e dei batraci raccolti da O. Beccari, L. M. D'Alberts e A. A. Bruijn. nella sotto-regione Austro-Malese. Annali del Museo Civico de Storia Naturale di Genova. ser. 1, 13: 323-450 - get paper here
  • Setiadi, M. I. & A. Hamidy, 2006. Jenis-Jenis Herpetofauna di Pulau Halmahera. Kerjasama antara Pusat Studi Biodiversitas dan Konservasi Universitas Indonesia dan Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Puslit Biologi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Sternfeld, R. 1918. Zur Tiergeographie Papuasiens und der pazifischen Inselwelt. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 36: 375-436 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1974. The genus Carlia (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in Western Australia and Northern Territory. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 151-165 - get paper here
  • Walker,J. 1894. A visit to Damma Island, East Indian Archipelago. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 14: 49-59 - get paper here
  • Wilhoft, D.C. 1961. Temperature responses in two tropical Australian skinks Herpetologica 17 (2): 109-113. - get paper here
  • Zug,G. R. 2004. Systematics of the Carlia “fusca” lizards (Squamata: Scincidae) of New Guinea and Nearby Islands. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. 5: 1-83
  • ZUG,G.R. & A. ALLISON 2006. New Carlia fusca complex lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) from New Guinea, Papua-Indonesia. Zootaxa 1237: 27-44 - get paper here
 
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