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Celestus crusculus (GARMAN, 1887)

IUCN Red List - Celestus crusculus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDiploglossidae, Diploglossa, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCelestus crusculus crusculus (GARMAN 1887)
Celestus crusculus cundalli GRANT 1940
Celestus crusculus maculatus GARMAN 1888
Celestus crusculus molesworthi GRANT 1940 
Common NamesE: Jamaican Galliwasp, Garman's Galliwasp 
SynonymDiploglossus crusculus GARMAN 1887:22.
Diploglossus bakeri BOULENGER 1900 (fide BARBOUR 1910)
Diploglossus crusculus crusculus — GREER 1967
Celestus crusculus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 369
Celestus crusculus — WILSON 2011
Celestus crusculus crusculus — HEDGES et al. 2019
Celestus crusculus — SCHOOLS & HEDGES 2021

Celestus crusculus cundalli GRANT 1940
Celestus crusculus cundalli GRANT 1940: 157
Celestus crusculus cundalli — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus crusculus cundalli — HEDGES et al. 2019

Celestus crusculus maculatus GARMAN 1888
Diploglossus maculatus GARMAN 1888: 105
Celestus crusculus maculatus — COUSENS 1956: 2
Celestus crusculus maculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus maculatus — HEDGES et al. 2019

Celestus crusculus molesworthi GRANT 1940
Celestus crusculus molesworthi GRANT 1940: 157
Diploglossus crusculus molesworthi — GREER 1967
Celestus crusculus molesworthi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus molesworthi — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionCaribbean: Antilles, Jamaica, Cayman Islands

crusculus: coastal areas of Jamaica; delineation of the range is tentative.

cundalli: interior of Jamaica, at elevations of 2000 to 4000 ft.; Type locality: Mandeville, Manchester Parish, Jamaica. Delineation of the range is tentative.

maculatus: Cayman Is.: Little Cayman I., Cayman Brac.; Type locality: Cayman Brac

molesworthi: coastal region of northeastern Jamaica; Type locality: Near Buff Bay, Portland Parish, Jamaica.

Type locality: Kingston, Kingston Parish, Jamaica.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 6051 (crusculus)
Holotype: CAS-SUR 9298, MCZ 45163 [cundalli]
Holotype: MCZ 45184 [molesworthi]
Holotype: MCZ 6231 [maculatus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (maximum SVL in males 90 mm, in females 85 mm); limbs relatively short; nasal excluded from rostral; scales around midbody 36-50; dorsal scales striate and keeled; dorsal caudal scales usually striate, less often keeled, rarely smooth; ventrals smooth or striate, 87-123 between mental and vent; 37-50 midbody scales; fourth toe lamellae 10-15; angular subocular usually between supralabials 6/7, less often 5/6 or 7/8. Dorsum gray, light tan, brown to dark brown (often with metallic appearance); dorsal band width 12-16 scales; with or without pattern; if present (Jamaica), dark brown to black checkerboard, spotted, and/or chevronate pattern (with or without white specking), or (Cayman Is.) plain gray or faintly spotted; flanks dark brown to black, with or without white spots; light line may (Jamaica) or may not (Cayman Is.) separate dorsal pattern from darker flanks; labials light to dark gray; with or without 2 parallel lines on neck; belly white, cream, yellow, salmon, or orange; lateral black pigment may extend to venter; throat gray or striped, mottled or clouded with gray (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 369). 
CommentFor illustrations see Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: BOULENGER (1888: 9) in the Zoological Record of 1888 noted that maculatus is synonymous with striatus. 
  • Barbour, T. 1910. Notes on the herpetology of Jamaica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 52: 273—301 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1900. Description of a new lizard from Jamaica. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 6 (32): 193-194 - get paper here
  • Cousens, Penny Norseen 1956. Notes on the Jamaican and Cayman Island lizards of the genus Celestus. Breviora (56): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian Geckonidae and Anguide. Bull. Essex Inst. 19: 17-24. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1888. Reptiles and batrachians from the Caymans and from the Bahamas. Collected by Prof. C. J. Maynard for the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Bull. Essex Inst. 20: 101-113 - get paper here
  • Greer, A.E. 1967. Notes on the mode of reproduction in anguid lizards. Herpetologica 23 (2): 94-99 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • SCHOOLS, MOLLY & S. BLAIR HEDGES 2021. Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the Neotropical forest lizards (Squamata, Diploglossidae). Zootaxa 4974 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Thomas, R. and S. B. Hedges. 1989. A new Celestus (Sauria: Anguidae) from the Chaine de Ia Selle of Haiti. Copeia 1989 (4): 886-891 - get paper here
  • Wilson, B.S. & Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the Blue-tailed Galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Carib. J. Sci. 36: 244-249
  • Wilson, Byron S. 2011. Conservation of Jamaican amphibians and reptiles. In: Hailey et al., eds, Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas Volume 2: 273-310 - get paper here
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