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Celestus stenurus (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaDiploglossidae, Diploglossa, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCelestus stenurus stenurus (COPE 1862)
Celestus stenurus alloeides SCHWARTZ 1964
Celestus stenurus rugosus COPE 1879
Celestus stenurus weinlandi COPE 1868 
Common NamesE: Hispaniolan Keeled Galliwasp, Cope's Galliwasp 
SynonymDiploglossus stenurus COPE 1862 (1863): 188
Celestus striatus — GRAY 1838: 288
Celestus stenurus — COPE 1879: 272
Diploglossus striatus — BOULENGER 1885: 289
Diploglossus striatus — FISCHER 1888: 29
Diploglossus stenurus stenurus — SCHWARTZ 1964: 8
Celestus stenurus stenurus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus stenurus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 378

Celestus stenurus alloeides SCHWARTZ 1964
Diploglossus stenurus alloeides SCHWARTZ 1964: 18
Celestus stenurus alloeides — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus stenurus alloeides — HEDGES et al. 2019

Celestus stenurus rugosus COPE 1879
Celestus rugosus COPE 1879
Diploglossus stenurus rugosus — SCHWARTZ 1964: 14
Celestus stenurus rugosus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus stenurus rugosus — WWW 2008
Celestus stenurus rugosus — HEDGES et al. 2019

Celestus stenurus weinlandi COPE, 1868
Celestus weinlandi COPE 1868: 125
Diploglossus stenurus weinlandi — SCHWARTZ 1964: 10
Celestus stenurus weinlandi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Celestus rugosus weinlandi — WWW 2008
Celestus rugosus weinlandi — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionAntilles, Hispaniola, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Ile-a-Vache, Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile a Cabrit

stenurus: Tiburon Peninsula in Haiti; Île-à-Vache; intergrades with C. s. weinlandi in Port-au-Prince area. Type locality: Near Jérémie, Département de la Grand'Anse, Haiti.

alloeides: Peninsula de Samanà, República Dominicana; intergrades with C. s. rugosus on mainland in vicinity of base of peninsula.

rugosus: northern Haiti into northwestern República Dominicana, thence throughout much of the eastern portion of that country; Cayos Siete Hermanos.

weinlandi: Haiti, from Gonaïves and Ennery southeast along Golfe de la Gonâve to Plaine de Cul de Sac, thence east into Llanos de Azua and Barahona, República Dominicana; Île à Cabrit.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Material from Île Grande Cayemite and Jacmel, as well as interior Haiti near Mirebalais, unassigned subspecifically.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 3612
Holotype: MCZ 77152 [alloeides]
Holotype: USNM 10260 [rugosus]
Holotype: USNM 12145 [weinlandi] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 172 mm, in females to 143 mm); limbs relatively long; nasal excluded from rostral; frontal longer than broad; dorsal body and caudal scales with very pronounced keels in both young and adults; ventral scales usually smooth, 81-105 between mental and vent; 37-45 scales around midbody; 13-21 fourth toe lamellae; snout short and rounded. Dorsal pattern varying from a series of dorsal crossbars to plain, nonmetallic brown without pattern; nuchal lines often present, in 1 subspecies extending far posteriorly on dorsum (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 378). 
CommentFor illustrations see Boulenger, 1885 (as Diploglossus striatus); Cochran, 1941 (as C.costatus); Grant, 1951 (as C. costatus); Schwartz, 1964 d.

Type species: Celestus striatus is the type species of the genus Celestus GRAY 1838: 288 (fide PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970).

Higher taxa: Celestus is here assigned to Diploglossidae based on the paraphyly within Anguimorpha in Zheng & Wiens 2016. Most other recent authors included the genus in Anguidae: Diploglossinae. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 96-140 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1888. Über eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von Hayti. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 5: 23-45. - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1951. The specific characters of the Celesti, with description of anew species of Celestus (Sauria: Anguidae). Copeia 1951 (1): 67-69. - get paper here
  • Greer, A.E. 1967. Notes on the mode of reproduction in anguid lizards. Herpetologica 23 (2): 94-99 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz,A. 1964. Diploglossus costatus Cope (Sauria: Anguidae) and its relatives in Hispaniola. Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery Sci. Publ. 13: 1-57
  • Thomas, R. and S. B. Hedges. 1989. A new Celestus (Sauria: Anguidae) from the Chaine de Ia Selle of Haiti. Copeia 1989 (4): 886-891 - get paper here
  • Zheng, Yuchi; John J. Wiens 2016. Combining phylogenomic and supermatrix approaches, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) based on 52 genes and 4162 species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 537–547, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.10.009 - get paper here
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