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Cemophora coccinea (BLUMENBACH, 1788)

IUCN Red List - Cemophora coccinea - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCemophora coccinea coccinea (BLUMENBACH 1788)
Cemophora coccinea copei JAN 1863 
Common NamesE: Scarlet Snake
coccinea: Florida Scarlet Snake
copei: Northern Scarlet Snake
lineri: Texas Scarlet Snake
G: Scharlachnatter 
SynonymColuber coccineus BLUMENBACH 1788: 11
Coluber dumfrisiensis SOWERBY 1804
Natrix dumfrisiensis — FLEMING 1828
Coluber dumfrisiensis — BELL 1939
Coronella coccinea — DE FILIPPI 1840: 177
Heterodon coccineus — DE FILIPPI 1840: 182
Rhinostoma coccineus — HOLBROOK 1842: 125
Simotes coccineus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 637
Cemophora coccinea — COPE 1860: 244
Cemophora coccinea — JAN 1865
Coronella coccinea — JAN 1866
Cemophora coccinea — ALLEN 1932
Cemophora coccinea — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 213
Cemophora coccinea — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea — CROTHER et al. 2012
Cemophora coccinea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 152

Cemophora coccinea coccinea (BLUMENBACH, 1788)
Cemophora coccinea coccinea — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea coccinea — CROTHER et al. 2012

Cemophora coccinea copei JAN, 1863: 231
Cemophora Copei — JAN 1865
Cemophora coccinea copei — PALMER & BRASWELL 1995
Cemophora coccinea copei — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea copei — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 450
Cemophora coccinea copei — CROTHER et al. 2012
Cemophora coccinea copei — ZAPPALORTI 2012
Cemophora coccinea copei — WEINELL & AUSTIN 2017
Cemophora coccinea copei — GUYER et al. 2018 
DistributionUSA (S/E Texas, E Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey; disjunct populations in S Texas, New Jesey, and C Missouri)

coccinea: peninsular Florida; Type locality: Florida.

copei: rest of range, incl. Alabama

dumfrisiensis: Type locality: Dumfrieshire (ierror, see comment); designated as Charleston, South Carolina, by K.P. Schmidt 1954.  
TypesHolotype: lost, originally ZMG, but lost fide Williams and Wilson, 1967: 112, Williams 1985, Wallach et al. 2014.
Holotype: MHNG 524.74 [copei] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): “Cemophora may be distinguished from other colubrid genera in the Western Hemisphere by the following combination of characteristics: hemipenial shape and ornamentation, color pattern, enlarged rostral, scales in 19 rows at midbody; two apical pits, anal plate entire; and last two maxillary teeth distinctly enlarged and saber-like.” (Williams 1985) 
CommentSubspecies: Cemophora coccinea lineri has been elevated to full species by Weinell & Austin 2017.

The data of publication was BLUMENBACH 1786 fide DUMÉRIL et al. 1854.

Type species: Coluber coccineus BLUMENBACH 1788: 11 is the type species of the genus Cemophora COPE 1860.

Synonyms: dumfriesiensis: originally reported (erroneously) from Dumfrieshire, Scotland. Synonym of C. coccinea fide K. P. Schmidt 1954. Selected other synonyms from Wallach et al. 2014: 152.

Phylogenetics: see Dahn et al. 2018 for a phylogeny of Lampropeltini. 
EtymologyCemophora is derived from the Greek words cemos (meaning muzzle, mouth, snout) and phoros (meaning bearing) and alludes to the pronounced rostral scale. The gender is feminine. “coccineus” means scarlet red, from Greek “coccos” = fruit seed or berry seed, being red or otherwise. 
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