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Cercophis auratus (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Schlegel's Golden Snake 
SynonymDendrophis aurata SCHLEGEL 1837: 227
Cercophis aurata — FITZINGER 1843: 26
Dendrophis auratus — SCHLEGEL 1858: 46
Uromacer Ricardinii PERACCA 1897
Leptophis flagellum ANDERSSON 1901: 13
Leptophis vertebralis WERNER 1909: 221
Uromacerina ricardinii — AMARAL 1929
Leptophis ahaetulla (LINNAEUS 1758) — AMARAL 1930: 161 (part)
Leptophis occidentalis occidentalis (GÜNTHER 1859) — AMARAL 1930: 162 (part)
Leptophis ahaetulla liocercus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 162 (part)
Leptophis ahaetulla liocercus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1986: 162 (part)
Cercophis auratus — HOOGMOED 1983: 226
Uromacerina richardii [sic] — POR 1992: 54
Cercophis auratus — HOOGMOED 1997
Uromacerina ricardinii — JORGE SUZART ARGOLO 2001
Cercophis auratus — CLAESSEN 2003
Cercophis auratus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 156
Uromacerina ricardinii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 778
Cercophis auratus — HOOGMOED et al. 2019
Cercophis auratus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionSuriname, Brazil (Rio de Janeiro etc.)

Type locality: Paramaribo, Suriname

Uromacer ricardinii: Brazil (Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Pará, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais [HR 35: 85]); Type locality: Sao Paulo  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: RMNH 813, a 570 mm specimen (Dieperink).
Holotype: MRSN (= MSNTO) R1769 [ricardinii]
Holotype: NRM 1981 [flagellum]
Holotype: ZMH 4201 [vertebralis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus Uromacerina): in CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1982: 2.

Diagnosis (Cercophis): Small slender, apparently arboreal, snakes having a very long tail (41-49% of total length), ending in a sharp tip. Eye large, pupil round. Maxillary teeth 19-20, followed by a distinct diastema andtwolarger, ungrooved teeth. Head long and flattened, with a complete complement of head scales (no fusions). Supralabials 8, rarely 9, with 4th and 5th (5th and 6th) entering orbit; infralabials 10; 1 or 2 (rarely) loreal(s); preocular 1;postoculars 2.Temporals basically 1+2,but thefirst onemay be divided i n several ways. Ventrals 140-149, anal divided, subcaudals paired, 129-163. Ventrals without lateral keels. Dorsal scales i n 15-15-11 oblique rows, smooth, very narrow, the vertebral one, the paravertebral ones (only from middle of body) and the first row on each side slightly enlarged; no apical pits or anal ridges. Scales on tail in four rows [Hoogmoed 1997: 64]

Diagnosis (auratus): same as for genus. 
CommentSynonymy: after Hoogmoed et al. 2019; Uromacer Ricardinii was synonymized with Cercophis auratus by Hoogmoed et al. 2019.

Type species: Dendrophis aurata SCHLEGEL 1837: 227 is the type species of the genus Cercophis FITZINGER 1843.

Type species: Uromacer Ricardinii PERACCA 1897 is the type species of the genus Uromacerina AMARAL 1930: 18.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Greek “cercos” = tail and “ophis” = snake. The species is named after Latin “aurum” = gold. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Andersson, L.G. 1901. Some new species of snakes from Cameroon and South America, belonging to the collections of the Royal Museum in Stockholm. Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vet. Akad. Handlingar 27 (4): 1-26 - get paper here
  • Argôlo, Antônio Jorge Suzart 2001. Geographic distribution. Uromacerina ricardinii. Herpetological Review 32 (3):196-197 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen can de Guyana’s. Deel iv. Lacerta 61 (1): 19-27 - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique Caldeira & Renato Silveira Bérnils 2015. Répteis brasileiros: lista de espécies 2015. Herpetologia Brasileira 4 (3): 75-93
  • Cunha, O R da; do Nascimento F P 1982. Ofídios da Amazônia. XVI - A especie Uromacerina ricardini (Peracca, 1897) na Amazônia oriental (Leste do Pará) (Ophidia: Colubridae). Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem (n.s., Zool.) no. 113: 1-9
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hartmann, Paulo Afonso. 2006. Uromacerina ricardinii Reproduction. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 95-96 - get paper here
  • Hoge,A.R. 1959. ÉTUDE sur Uromacerina ricardinii PERACCA (Serpentes). Mem. Inst. Butantan 28 [1957-1958]: 77-79 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M. S. 1983. Snakes of the Guianan region. Mem. Inst. Butantan 42 [1982]: 219-254 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M.S. 1982. Snakes of the Guianan Region. Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 219-254. - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, Marinus S.; Ronaldo Fernandes, Christoph Kucharzewski, Julio Cesar Moura-Leite, Renato S. Bérnils, Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto & Filipe Pereira Rêgos dos Santos 2019. Synonymization of Uromacer ricardinii Peracca, 1897 with Dendrophis aurata Schlegel, 1837 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae: Dipsadinae), a Rare South American Snake with a Disjunct Distribution. South American J. Herp. 14 (2): 88-102 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed,M.S. 1997. Rediscovery of a forgotten snake in an unexpected place and remarks on a small herpetological collection from southeastern Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen 71 (1-18): 63-81 - get paper here
  • Lema, Thales de 1973. Ocorréncia de Uromacerina ricardinii (Peracca 1897) no Rio Grande do Sul e contribuicao ao conhecimento dessa rara serpente (Ophidia, Colubridae). Iheringia, Série Zoologia 44: 64-73 - get paper here
  • Müller,P. & Ritter,C. 1978. Erstnachweis von Uromacerina ricardinii (Peracca 1897) für den Staat von Santa Catarina (Brasilien). Salamandra 14 (1): 44 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Peracca, M. G. 1897. Intorno ad una nuova specie di Ofidio di S. Paulo (Brasile) riferibile al gen. Uromacer, D. & B. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino 12 (282): 1-2
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Pontes, J.A.L.; Figueiredo, J.P., Pontes, RC. and Rocha, C.F.D. 2008. Snakes from the Atlantic Rainforest area of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil: a first approximation to the taxocenosis composition. Braz. J. Biol. 68(3): 601-609 - get paper here
  • Por F.D. 1992. Sooretama: The Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. SPB Aca- demic Publishing, The Hague
  • ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL. Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schwartz A; Henderson R W 1984. Uromacer Dumeril. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 355: 1 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner,F. 1909. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Jahrb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. suppl. 2 (Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hamb. 1908) 26: 205-247 - get paper here
  • Zamprogno, Claudio 1997. Geographic Distribution. Uromacerina ricardinii. Herpetological Review 28 (4): 211 - get paper here
 
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