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Chlorosoma dunupyana MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, MARTINS, JENNINGS, MOURA-LEITE, MORATO, VENEGAS, CHÁVEZ, VENÂNCIO & SOUZA, 2020

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymChlorosoma dunupyana MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, MARTINS, JENNINGS, MOURA-LEITE, MORATO, VENEGAS, CHÁVEZ, VENÂNCIO & SOUZA 2020
Taeniophallus brevirostris — SILVA et al. 2012: 169 (non PETERS 1863) 
DistributionBrazil (Acre)

Type locality: Parque Zoobotânico of Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, 95702600 S, 675202500 W, 164 m elevation (above sea level)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: UFAC-RB 345, an adult male, collected on 15 October 2009 by N.M. Venâncio.
Paratypes: MNRJ 27152 (formerly UFAC-RB 210), an adult male from Segundo Distrito (this region encompasses the urban area of Rio Branco city at the right bank of Rio Acre), Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, collected on December 1998 by N. Ishi. UFAC-RB 262, an adult female from Parque Ambiental Chico Mendes, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, 10 02011.000 S, 6747043.100 W, 157 m asl, collected on 17 November 2005 by M.B. Souza. MNRJ 27153 (formerly UFAC-RB 346), an adult female from type locality collected on 29 November 2009 by P.R Melo-Sampaio. UFAC-RB 357, an adult female from Chacara de Jesus, km 4 of Quixada road, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, 954042.800 S, 6746002.600 W, 173 m asl, collected on 3 September 2011 by P.R. Melo-Sampaio, J.M.L. Maciel, C.M.B. Oliveira, P.L.A. Elias, M.O. da Cunha and R.S. Moura. MNRJ 27154 (formerly UFAC-RB 421), a subadult male from type locality, collected on 30 March 2012 by M.B. Souza and J.S. Araújo. UFAC-RB 554, a subadult male from type locality collected on 22 October 2014 by P.R. Melo-Sampaio and J.M.L. Maciel. UFAC-RB 649 (PRMS 466 field number), a subadult female from type locality collected on 27 November 2018 by P.R. Melo-Sampaio, R. Mustafa and M.B. Souza. MNRJ 25242, a subadult female from type locality collected on 13 May 2015 by P.R. Melo-Sampaio, E. Lima, J. Costa and J.N. Caruta. CORBIDI 19094 (GCI-084 field number), an adult male from Nuevo Mundo camp, La Convencion, Cusco, Peru 1132026.800 S, 7308034.800 W; 333 m asl, collected on 7 October 2017 by G. Chavez. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Chlorosoma dunupyana is a gracile dipsadid snake characterized by the following unique combination of characters: unilobed hemipenes*, with capitulum restricted to a distal region of hemipenial body*; four enlarged spines adjacent to capitulum and few rows of spines throughout body, sulcus spermaticus bifurcating to the half of organ, with enlarged calyces restricted to capitulum*; pupil round; maxillary teeth with two grooved teeth; 17 dorsal scales at mid-body reducing to 15 posteriorly; six to seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting the eye; nine to ten infralabials, first four contacting first pair of chinshields; nasal entire; postoculars two; temporals 1 + 1 or 1 + 2; dorsal scales smooth with a single apical pit; 188e194 ventrals; cloacal plate divided; 118-130 paired subcaudals (MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020).

Comparisons: Chlorosoma dunupyana differs from all species in the Philodryadini tribe by dorsal coloration being a yellowish cream to smoke gray (vs. uniform green in remaining Chlorosoma and some Philodryas, uniform gray or pale brown with green stripes in Xenoxybelis, dark striped on brown dorsum in many Philodryas), small size <650 mm total length (vs. minimum >800 mm in Chlorosoma and Xenoxybelis), dorsal scale rows in 17/17/15 (vs. 19/19/13 in other Chlorosoma, 21/21/17, 19/19/15 or 13/13/13 in Philodryas and Pseudablabes), hemipenes unilobed with calyces restricted to capitulum and lacking of the lateral row of enlarged spines (vs. bilobed hemipenes with calyces extending to proximal region of the hemipenial body and presence of lateral rows of enlarged spines in Philodryadini), and by molecular data (MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020). 
Comment 
EtymologyFrom the Panoan speakers Katukina/Kashinawa Indigenous words dunu (= snake) + pyanã (1⁄4 venomous) (see Souza et al. 2002), used herein in reference to well-developed Duvernoy’s gland and rear-fang in the posterior portion of maxillary of the newly discovered snake. 
References
  • Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Passos, P., Martins, A. R., Moura-leite, J. C., Morato, S. A., Venegas, P. J., Chávez G., Venâncio N.M. & De Souza, M. B. 2020. A phantom on the trees: integrative taxonomy supports a reappraisal of rear-fanged snakes classification (Dipsadidae: Philodryadini). Zoologischer Anzeiger 290: 19-39 [dated 2021 in print version, but 2020 published online] - get paper here
  • Silva, M.V., Souza, M.B., Bernarde, P.S., 2012. Riqueza e dieta de serpentes do Estado do Acre, Brasil. Rev. Bras. Zoociencias 12, 165e176 [dated 2010]
 
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