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Chlorosoma viridissimum (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Common Green Racer
Portuguese: Boiobi, Boiubu, Cobra-Cipó, Cobra-Cipó-Verde, Cobra-Papagaio, Cobra-Verde, Papagaia, Tucanaboia 
SynonymColuber viridissimus LINNAEUS 1758: 226
Coluber ianthinus DAUDIN 1803: 273
? Dryophylax viridissimus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1106
Philodryas crassifrons COPE 1861 (?)
Philodryas viridissimus — WUCHERER 1862: 254
Philodryas crassifrons — BOETTGER 1885: 235
Philodryas viridissimus — BOULENGER 1896: 129
Philodryas affinis MÜLLER 1928: 77
Philodryas viridissimus — BEEBE 1946: 38
Philodryas viridissimus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 245
Philodryas viridissimus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Philodryas viridissimus — STARACE 1998: 315
Philodryas viridissimus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Philodryas viridissima — HAMDAN et al. 2012
Philodryas viridissimus — RIVAS et al. 2012
Philodryas viridissima — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Philodryas viridissimus — CATENAZZI et al. 2013
Philodryas viridissima — WALLACH et al. 2014: 553
Philodryas viridissima — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Chlorosoma viridissimum — ARREDONDO et al. 2020
Chlorosoma viridissimum — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Roraima, Acre, Pará), S Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru,
Colombia, Ecuador

Type locality: “Surinamei”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: unknown fide PETERS 1960.
Holotype: ANSP 5529; Cayenne [crassifrons]
Holotype: ZSM 8/1928 (lost), male [Philodryas affinis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): (putative apomorphies followed by ‘*’): head, body, and tail uniformly green, except for the gular region and anteriormost ventrals being white coloured (yellow in life in the C. laticeps; Fig. 3)*; lack of well-defined longitudinal rows of large and deep body calyces on the distal half of the asulcate surface of the hemipenial body*; lateral enlarged spines reduced to middle sized spines; distal rows of middle sized spines disposed in a typical “V-shape” configuration on the asulcate surface of the hemipenial body; * diameter of the half portion of the hemipenes larger than both proximal and distal extremities (Zaher et al. 2008); dorsal scale rows reducing anterior-posteriorly from 19 to 17 to 13e11; high number of ventral scales (204e218); body with slight lateral compression more pronounced in the extremities and belly laterally angulated (MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020).

Diagnosis: Chlorosoma can be distinguished from the other genera of Philodryadini by the following combina- tion of characters: ventral and subcaudal scales strong-
ly angulated laterally (keeled); ontogenetic change in color pattern, with juveniles exhibiting dark chevrons throughout the body dorsum and adults changing to a homogeneously green dorsum; ventral surface with a yellow, white or cream gular region (excluding infralabial scales) and green venter and tail; short hemipenes with reduced lateral enlarged spines (Arredondo et al. 2020). 
CommentSynonymy: after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1986.

Distribution: Reported from but not in Paraguay (fide Cacciali et al. 2016). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Venomous!

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Type species: Coluber viridissimus LINNAEUS 1758: 226 is the type species of the genus Chlorosoma WAGLER 1830. Note that Arredondo et al. 2020 and Melo-Sampaio et al. 2020 revalidated Chlorosoma almost at the same time. However, the former was published on 20 Oct 2020 while the latter was published 2 weeks later on 4 Nov 2020. 
EtymologyThe generic name is neuter, being a combination of the Greek words Chloros‐ (adjective, χλωρός, meaning “bright green”) and ‐soma (noun, σῶμα, meaning “body”), in reference to the overall bright green coloration of the body in these species. The gender of the name Chlorosoma is grammatically neuter (Amaral 1929a, b, c, 1932) since the meaning given by Wagler (1830) was of a “green snake.” 
References
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