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Cnemidophorus gramivagus MCCRYSTAL & DIXON, 1987

IUCN Red List - Cnemidophorus gramivagus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesPortuguese: Calango 
SynonymCnemidophorus gramivagus MCCRYSTAL & DIXON 1987
Cnemidophorus gramivagus — COLLI et al. 2003
Cnemidophorus gramivagus — UGUETO et al. 2010
Cnemidophorus gramivagus — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionColombia, Venezuela, NW Brazil

Type locality: Venezuela: Apuré, 6 km W San Fernando de Apuré, at Hato la Guanota.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: TCWC 46203 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cnemidophorus gramivagus is distinguished from all other species of Cnemidophorus by the following combination of characters: nostril in the suture between nasal plates; frontoparietals usually 2 (90%); supraoculars usually 4 (82%); parietals usually 5 (98%);longitudinal rows of ventrals 8; little to no spotting on the limbs; adults usually with only two longitudinal white, yellow or yellowish-green dorsolateral stripes, which may fade posteriorly or be totally absent; juveniles with two bold white or yellowish dorsolateral stripes separated from two faint white or yellowish dorsal stripes by longitudinal band of dark ground color, sometimes with faint lateral stripes; enlarged anal spurs in males (McCrystal & Dixon 1987).

Comparisons: Similar to C. lemniscatus, but differs in color and pattern in all age classes of both sexes, and attains a much larger size. The current working hypothesis is that ‘‘C.’’ gramivagus and ‘‘C.’’ lemniscatus are the two ancestral species of C. cryptus (Cole and Dessauer, 1993; Reeder et al. 2002). 
Comment

Distribution: Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005). 
Etymologyhe adjectival name gramivagus comes from the Latin noun gramen, meaning "grass," and the Latin adjective vagus, meaning "wandering." The name means "grass wandering" and refers to the Llanos grasslands from where the type specimens were collected. 
References
  • Cole C J; Dessauer H C 1993. Unisexual and bisexual whiptail lizards of the Cnemidophorus lemniscatus complex (Squamata: Teiidae) of the Guiana Region, South America, with descriptions of new species. American Museum Novitates 3081: 1-30 - get paper here
  • Colli, G.R. et al. 2003. A critically endangered new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata, Teiidae) from a Cerrado enclave in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetologica 59 (1): 76-88 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira. 9(2): 121 – 214
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • McCrystal, H. K.;Dixon, J. R. 1987. A new species of Cnemidophorus (Sauria Teiidae) from the llanos of Colombia and Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 21 (4): 245-254 - get paper here
  • Pedroza-Banda, Raúl; Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, John D. Lynch 2014. Estado de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del Casanare Ciencias naturales Estado del conocimiento de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del departamento de Casanare, Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 38 (146): 17-34 - get paper here
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rocha,C.F.D. et al. 2000. New Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) from coastal Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Copeia 2000 (2): 501-509 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, Gabriel N.; Michael B. Harvey, and Gilson A. Rivas 2010. TWO NEW SPECIES OF CNEMIDOPHORUS (SQUAMATA: TEIIDAE) FROM ISLANDS OF THE NORTHEASTERN COAST OF VENEZUELA. Herpetological Monographs 23 (1): 123-153 [2009] - get paper here
 
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