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Conopsis acuta (COPE, 1886)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Spotted Tolucan Earthsnake
S: Toluqueña Manchada 
SynonymOgmius varians COPE 1870: 162
Ogmius acutus COPE in FERRARI-PEREZ 1886: 189
Toluca lineata acuta — COPE 1886: 346
Chionactis diasii acutus — COPE 1898 (1900): 943
Toluca lineata acuta — SMITH 1942
Conopsis lineata wetmorei SMITH 1943
Conopsis acuta — GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2006
Conopsis acuta — WALLACH et al. 2014: 180
Conopsis acuta — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015 
DistributionMexico (Oaxaca, Puebla, and Veracruz, Guerrero), elevation 1800 to
2600 m.

Type locality: restricted to: 2 millas E Ixtlán de Juárez (AMNH 91054) by GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2006 (see this paper for further comments on the type locality).  
TypesHolotype: USNM 30552
Holotype: USNM 110727 [wetmorei] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: This snake is characterized by the following combination of characters: divided internasals and prefrontals; brown dorsal coloration, or some individuals with a grayish dorsum and a vertebral line of elongated hexagonal spots; with tessellated sides, or two paravertebral dark lines. Ventrally it is yellowish or yellow-orange, with no spots or with a row of paired dots on each end of the ventral scales. It differs from C. nasus and C. megalodon by having divided prefrontals and internasals, scales fused in the latter two species. The dorsal spot pattern may be similar in the three. Conopsis acuta is a smaller snake (SVL 100–225 mm) compared to the other two species, C. nasus (SVL: 100–320 mm) and C. megalodon (SVL: 107–250 mm); C. acuta differs from C. lineata by lacking continuous lines along the dorsum and its smaller size (C. lineata SVL: 100–273 mm). 
CommentThe type locality of this species (”Juchitán, Oaxaca”) is in error. 
  • Canseco-Márquez, L., & Gutiérrrez-Mayén, M.G. 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Comisión Nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, México D.F., Mexico, 302 pp - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. In: Ferrari-Perez: Catalogue of animals collected by the geographical and exploring commission of the Republic of Mexico, pp. 125-199 [Part III. Reptiles and Amphibians]. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 9: 182-199 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • GOYENECHEA, IRENE & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2006. Taxonomic summary of Conopsis, Günther, 1858 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zootaxa 1271: 1–27 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884
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