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Cophosaurus texanus TROSCHEL, 1852

IUCN Red List - Cophosaurus texanus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCophosaurus texanus scitulus (PETERS 1951)
Cophosaurus texanus reticulatus (PETERS 1951)
Cophosaurus texanus texanus TROSCHEL 1850 
Common NamesE: Greater Earless Lizard
E: Chihuahuan Greater Earless Lizard, Southwestern Earless Lizard [scitulus]
E: Texas Earless Lizard [texanus]
S: Lagartijón Sordo 
SynonymCophosaurus texanus TROSCHEL 1852: 289
Holbrookia texana — BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Holbrookia affinis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 125 (fide GÜNTHER 1885)
Holbrookia texana — COPE 1880: 16
Holbrookia texana — BOULENGER 1885: 208
Holbrookia texana — BURT 1935
Holbrookia texana — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 85
Cophosaurus texanus — CLARKE 1965
Holbrookia texana — CONANT 1978
Cophosaurus texanus — STEBBINS 1985: 116
Cophosaurus texanus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 99
Cophosaurus texanus — LINER 1994
Cophosaurus texanus texanus — LINER 2007

Cophosaurus texanus reticulatus (PETERS, 1951)
Holbrookia texana reticulata PETERS 1951
Holbrookia texana reticulata — KLUGE 1984
Cophosaurus texanus reticulatus — LINER 2007

Cophosaurus texanus scitulus (PETERS 1951)
Holbrookia texana scitula PETERS 1951
Holbrookia texana scitula — FUGLER 1956
Cophosaurus texanus scitulus — KLUGE 1984
Cophosaurus texanus scitulus — LINER et al. 1993
Cophosaurus texanus scitulus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2004
Cophosaurus texanus scitulus — LINER 2007
Cophosaurus texanus scitulus — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (SW Arizona, S New Mexico, W Texas),
Mexico (NE Sonora, N Chihuahua, NE Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, W Tamaulipas, N Zacatecas)

scitulus: USA (Arizona, S Texas), Mexico (Coahuila, N San Luis Potosi); Type locality: On rocks at mouth of small arroyo entering Cañada del Oro del Oro, 16 miles north of Tucson, Pima Co., Arizona.

reticulatus: Mexico (Sonora); Type locality: Pilares, Sonora.

texanus: Texas, Oklahoma; NeoType locality: Texas, Comal, NE edge New Braunfels.

Type locality: New Braunfels, on the Guadalupe River, Texas.  
TypesNeotype: UMMZ 100811
Holotype: UMMZ 100817 [reticulatus]
Holotype: UMMZ 100818 [scitulus]
Syntype: USNM 2662 [Holbrookia affinis] 
CommentAXTELL (1958) proposed to separate Cophosaurus from Holbrookia in a PhD thesis (Univ. Texas).

Type Species: Cophosaurus texanus is the type species of the genus Cophosaurus TROSCHEL 1852. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from the Greek words “copho”, meaning deaf, and sauros, meaning lizard, in reference to the absence of an external ear opening. These lizards, however, are not deaf. THe species name “texanus” refers to its occurrence in Texas. The subspecific name “scitulus” is a Latin word meaning "beautiful." 
  • Baird, S.F. and Girard,C. 1852. Characteristics of some new reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, part 2. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 125-129 - get paper here
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Bezy, R.L. 2011. Greater Earless Lizard, Cophosaurus texanus Troschel, 1852. Herpetofauna of the 100 Mile Circle. Sonoran Herpetologist 24 (5):42-46. - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Cagle, Fred R. 1950. Notes on Holbrookia texana in Texas. Copeia 1950 (3): 230 - get paper here
  • Clarke, R. F. 1965. An ethological study of the iguanid lizard genera Callisaurus, Cophosaurus, and Holbrookia. Emporia St. Res. Stud. 13: 1-66
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1880. On the zoological position of Texas. Bull. US Natl. Mus., No. 17: 1-51 - get paper here
  • Cox & Tanner, W. 1977. Great Basin Naturalist. 37: 35-56 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Davis DR, LaDuc TJ 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of C. E. Miller Ranch and the Sierra Vieja, Chihuahuan Desert, Texas, USA. ZooKeys 735: 97-130 - get paper here
  • de Queiroz, K. 1989. Morphological and biochemical evolution in the sand lizards. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. [
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Fugler, Charles M.;Webb, Robert G. 1956. Distributional notes on some reptiles and amphibians from southern and central Coahuila. Herpetologica 12: 167-171 - get paper here
  • Giermakowski, J. T. & Chour, J. 2012. Geographic distribution: Cophosaurus texanus (greater eared lizard). Herpetological Review 43: 618 - get paper here
  • Howland, Jeffrey M. 1992. Life history of Cophosaurus texanus (Sauria: Iguanidae): Environmental correlates and interpopulatonal variation. Copeia 1992 (1): 82-93 - get paper here
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 550 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 613 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., David Chiszar, and Hobart M. Smith 2004. Selected Records of 2003 Lizards from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 39 (9): 164-168 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A.;Montanucci, Richard R.;González-Alonso, Arturo;Mendoza Quijano, Fernando 1993. An additional contribution to the herpetology of Northern Coahuila, Mexico. Bol. Soc. Herpetol. Mex. 5 (1): 9-11 - get paper here
  • Martin, Plul S. 1958. A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gomez Farias Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (101): 1-102 + 7 plates - get paper here
  • Nevárez de Los Reyes, Manuel, Salvador Contreras-Arquieta and David Lazcano. 2015. Cophosaurus texanus (greater earless lizard) aquatic escape behavior). Herpetological Review 46 (1): 89 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Peters, J.A. 1951. Studies on the lizard Holbrookia texana (Troschel) with descriptions of two new subspecies. Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, (537): 1-20
  • Punzo, Fred 2007. Life history, demography, diet and habitat associations in the southwestern earless lizard, Cophosaurus texanus scitulus from northern and southern limits of its geographical range. Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (1): 65-76 - get paper here
  • Skubowius, Bernd 2012. Echsen, Schildkröten, Amphibien und Spinnentiere – die vielfältige Welt der „creeping crawlers“ in Arizona. Draco 13 (50): 70-78 - get paper here
  • Smith, Donald D.;Medica, Philip A.;Sanborn, Sherburn R. 1987. Ecological comparison of sympatric populations of sand lizards (Cophosaurus texanus and Callisaurus draconoides). Great Basin Naturalist 47 (2): 175-185 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1935. Notes on some Mexican lizards of the genus Holbrookia, with a description of a new species. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 22 (8): 185-201 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Troschel, F. H. 1852. Cophosaurus texanus, neue Eidechsengattung aus Texas. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 16 (1): 388-394 [1850] - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2018. Nordamerikanische Kleinleguane – Die Familie Phrynosomatidae. Reptilia 23 (131): 14-19
  • Werning, H. 2018. Der Große Treck. Teil 6: Den Rio Grande entlang. Reptilia 23 (130): 68-78
  • Werning, Heiko 2014. Leguane im „Wilden Westen“. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (2): 16-25 - get paper here
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