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Crenadactylus ocellatus (GRAY, 1845)

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Higher TaxaDiplodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: South-western clawless gecko 
SynonymDiplodactylus ocellatus GRAY 1845
Diplodactylus bilineatus GRAY 1845
Phyllodactylus ocellatus — DUMÉRIL 1856
Phyllodactylus bilineatus — DUMÉRIL 1856: 464
Diplodactylus ocellatus bilineatus — GÜNTHER 1875
Phyllodactylus ocellatus — BOULENGER 1885: 93
Phyllodactylus ocellatus — FORD 1963
Crenadactylus ocellatus — DIXON & KLUGE 1964: 174
Crenadactylus ocellatus ocellatus — STORR 1978
Crenadactylus bilineatus — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984
Crenadactylus ocellatus bilineatus — BAUER 1994
Crenadactylus ocellatus bilineatus — RÖSLER 2000: 64
Crenadactylus ocellatus ocellatus — RÖSLER 2000: 64
Crenadactylus ocellatus — COGGER 2000: 209
Crenadactylus ocellatus — WILSON & SWAN 2010
Crenadactylus ocellatus — DOUGHTY et al. 2016 
DistributionAustralia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia)

Type locality: restricted to Champion Bay, Houtman’s Abrolhos, West-Australia (fide GÜNTHER 1875).

bilineatus: Terra typica restricta: Champion Bay, Houtman’s Abrolhos, West-Australia (fide GÜNTHER 1875).  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1947.3.6.68
Syntypes: BMNH 1947.3.6.69 (2 specimens) [Diplodactylus bilineatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Based on Dixon & Kluge (1964). Species within the genus Crenadactylus are small (max SVL 35 mm) geckos differing from all other gekkonids by a combination of the following external morphological characteristics; digits with enlarged subdigital lamellae, terminal phalangeal elements forked and claws absent from all digits; outer margins of anterior portion of frontal notched to receive posterior projection of paired nasals. Internal morphological diagnostics include palatines short and broad, atlas fused dorsally; stapes imperforate (stapedial foramen absent); two pairs of sternal ribs, one or two pairs of mesosternal ribs; 28 sacral and presacral vertebrate; sacral diapophyses overlapping and fused (not fused in juveniles); in adults anterior tip of mesoscapula fused to precoracoid process at its union with precoracoid; interclavicle dagger-shaped; fingers 5; toes 5; phalangeal formula of manus 2-3-4-5-3, pes 2-3-4-5-4; 24–26 scleral ossicles; 13 or 15 premaxillary teeth; 29–31
maxillary teeth; 33–37 mandibular teeth; cloacal bones present in males (Dixon & Kluge 1964, Doughy et al. 2016).

Diagnosis. A moderately large (to 35.5 mm SVL) species of Crenadactylus with wide head (HW/HL 0.52– 0.70) and short trunk length (ILL/SVL 0.37–0.50). Rostral in full contact with nostril, internasal (if present) not extending beyond supranasal, 1 or 2 granular postmentals, dorsal scales homogeneous with smooth to weak keels, usually no pre-cloacal pores visible but some males with 2, when present pore-bearing scales in contact at midline, no enlarged tubercles on original tails. Ground colour tan and dark brown; dorsal pattern comprised of poorly- defined longitudinal pale and dark stripes, lateral zones pale with irregular dark stippling, pattern heavily overlain with intermixed pale and dark scales giving an irregular appearance, pale spots or ocelli comprised of 3–6 pale scales usually present in dorsolateral zone (Doughty et al. 2016). 
CommentSynonymy: Günther (1867) synonomized D. bilineatus with D. ocellatus, a move that was also followed by Boulenger (1885) and Doughty et al. 2016.

Subspecies: the previous subspecies naso and rostralis have been elevated to full species status by Doughty et al. 2016.

Type species: Diplodactylus ocellatus GRAY 1845 is the type species of the genus Crenadactylus DIXON & KLUGE 1964: 174.

Distribution: See map in Doughty et al. 2016: Fig. 2.

Habitat. Found in open woodland habitats throughout its range including areas dominated by Xanthorrhea grass trees, Eucalyptus (jarrah, mallee, marri, tuart, wandoo) and spinifex grass (Triodia) on a wide variety of soft (sandy and loamy) and hard stony substrates (e.g. laterite). Collectors’ notes record specimens have been found under ground cover such as fallen and rotten logs, woodpiles, leaf litter, granite boulders, limestone slabs, sheets of tin, railway sleepers and rubbish. One specimen (WAM R72276) was found one meter high under the bark of a gimlet tree, and other records mention ‘under bark’ indicating some climbing ability (Doughty et al. 2016). 
EtymologyA combination of the Latin word crena meaning ‘notch’ and Greek word daktylos meaning ‘finger’ in reference to the forked terminal phalanges.
The specific name ocellatus refers to the pale scattered blotches or ‘ocelli’ on the dorsum. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Dixon, J. R., and A. G. Kluge. 1964. A new gekkonid lizard genus from Australia. Copeia 1964 (1): 174—180 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. H. A. 1856. Description des reptiles nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus de la collection du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les charactères des reptiles. Archives du Muséum Hist. Nat. Paris, 8: 438—588. - get paper here
  • Ellis, Ryan J.; Paul Doughty and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. An annotated type catalogue of the geckos and pygopods (Squamata: Gekkota: Carphodactylidae, Diplodactylidae, Gekkonidae, Pygopodidae) in the collection of the Western Australian Museum. Records of the Western Australian Museum 33: 051–094 - get paper here
  • Ford, J. 1963. The Reptilian Fauna of the Islands between Dongara and Lancelin, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 8 (6): 135-142 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1875. A list of the saurians of Australia and New Zealand. Pp. 9-19. In: Richardson, J., and J. E. Gray. The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror, during the years 1839 to 1843. By authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Vol. 2. E. W. Janson, London - get paper here
  • Hallermann, J. 2020. An annotated list of reptiles and amphibians from the 1905 Hamburg expedition to southwest Australia deposited in the Zoological Museum Hamburg. Evolutionary Systematics 4: 61 - get paper here
  • How, RA, Cowan, MA, Teale, RJ, Schmitt, LH. 2020. Environmental correlates of reptile variation on the Houtman Abrolhos archipelago, eastern Indian Ocean. J Biogeogr. 47: 2017– 2028 - get paper here
  • Lucas, A. H. S., and C. Frost. 1895. Preliminary notice of certain new species of lizards from central Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 7: 264-269 - get paper here
  • Oliver, Paul M; Mark Adams, Paul Doughty 2010. Molecular evidence for ten species and Oligo-Miocene vicariance within a nominal Australian gecko species (Crenadactylus ocellatus, Diplodactylidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010, 10:386 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert 1995. Geckos der Welt - Alle Gattungen. Urania, Leipzig, 256 pp.
  • Storr, G.M., & Harold, G. 1978. Herpetofauna of the Shark Bay Region, Western Australia. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 6 (4): 449-467. - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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