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Crocodylus siamensis SCHNEIDER, 1801

IUCN Red List - Crocodylus siamensis - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
Common NamesE: Siamese crocodile
G: Siamkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodylus siamensis SCHNEIDER 1801
Crocodilus galeatus CUVIER 1807: 51
Crocodilus galeatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 113
Crocodylus siamensis — KING & BURKE 1989
Crocodylus siamensis — COX et al. 1998: 123
Crocodylus siamensis — NGUYEN et al. 2009 
DistributionCambodia, Indonesia (including Borneo and possibly Java), Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Myanmar (= Burma).

Type locality: "Siam" (=Thailand), corrected to “Louvo, Siam (= Ayutthaya, Thailand” by ROSS et al. 1995.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesLectotype: iconotype, “the specimen whose head is figured on plate I of the 1688 Description anatomique...”, a publication by Anonymous 1688 and that is cited with a different title in ROSS et al. 1995 who also made this designation. 
CommentConservation: The species may, however, have disappeared in many of the listed areas (e.g. Malaysia and Indonesia).

Types: not located, but illustrations in Du Vernay 1733. 
  • Anonymous 1688. Observations physiques et mathématiques pour servir à l’Histoire naturelle e à la Perfection de l’Astronomieet de la Géographie [...]. Paris, chez la Veuve d’Edme Martin, Jean Boudot et Estienne Marin, vi + 8 pp. [cited in Ross et al. 1995: 30]
  • Bauer, A.M. & Lavilla, E.O. (eds.) 2021. J. G. Schneider’s Historiae Amphibiorum: Herpetology at the Dawn of the 19th Century. SSAR, 848 pp. - get paper here
  • Bezuijen, Mark R.; Jack H. Cox, John B. Thorbjarnarson, Chanthone Phothitay, Michael Hedemark, and Akchousanh Rasphone 2013. Status of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Schneider, 1801 (Reptilia: Crocodylia) in Laos. Journal of Herpetology Mar 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1: 41-65. - get paper here
  • Brazaitis, Peter 1973. The identification of Crocodylus siamensis Schneider. Zoologica 58 (1): 43-45 - get paper here
  • Chaeychomsri, W.; Tabthipwon, P.; Napavarn Noparatnaraporn and Voravit Siripholvat 2008. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 42: 256 - 262
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
  • Cox, J. H.; Frazier, R. S.; Maturbongs, R. A. 1993. Freshwater crocodiles of Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Copeia 1993 (2): 564-566 - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Cuvier, G. 1807. Sur les différentes especes de crocodiles vivans et sur leurs caracteres distinctifs. Ann. Natl. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 8-86. - get paper here
  • Du Vernay, M. 1733. Description anatomique de trois crocodiles avec les reflexions de M. Du Vernay. Memoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis 1666 jusqu'à 1699. 3 (2): 254-280
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Gramentz, D. 2010. Zum Schreckruf juveniler Crocodylus rhombifer CUVIER, 1807 und Crocodylus siamensis. Sauria 32 (3): 39-46 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Han S., Hor L., Nhek R., Sorn P., Heng S., Simpson, B., Starr, A., Brooke, S., Frechee, J.L. & Daltry, J.C. 2015. Status, distribution and ecology of the Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis in Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2015: 153–164 - get paper here
  • Ji, X.; Wu, X.; Yan, P. & Amato, G. 2008. Complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of Siamensis Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Mol Biol Rep (2008) 35:133–13
  • Ko Ko, Win, Khin Myo Myo, Lay Lay Khaing, Kalyar and Bill Holmstrom 2006. Crocodiles in Myanmar: Species diversity, historic accounts, and current population status and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1):77-89.
  • Mateus, O. 2001. The first direct observation of Crocodylus siamensis in Lao PDR in the last thirty years. Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (2): 253-256 - get paper here
  • Meganathan, P.R.; Bhawna Dubey, Mark A. Batzer, David A. Ray, Ikramul Haque 2010. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of genus Crocodylus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) and the taxonomic position of Crocodylus porosus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (1): 393-402 - get paper here
  • Meurer, A. 2015. Private Pflege und Nachzucht bedrohter Krokodile. Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (1): 66-74 - get paper here
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conservation Genetics. 10:935–954
  • Nadja Niemann 2011. Last refuge for the Siamese crocodile? Zooquaria (75): 29 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nickel, H. & Auliya, M. 2004. Krokodile - faszinierende Überlebenskünstler. Draco 5 (20): 4-19 - get paper here
  • Pahl, Kristian Robert 2012. Die Wiederansiedlung des Siamkrokodils (Crocodylus siamensis) in Vietnam – ein zukunftsweisendes Projekt? Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (1): 56-60 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40 - get paper here
  • PLATT, S. G., O. THONGSAVATH, C. D. HALLAM, AND T. R. RAINWATER 2020. Crocodylus siamensis (Siamese Crocodile). Nesting And Nest Attendance. Herpetological Review. 51:589-590.
  • Platt, Steven G., Heng Sovannara, Long Kheng, Bryan L. Stuart and Joseph Walston. 2006. Crocodylus siamensis along the Sre Ambel River, southern Cambodia: habitat, nesting, and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 9 (2): 183-188. :
  • Platt, Steven G.; Ruth M. Elsey, Nichole D. Bishop, Thomas R. Rainwater, Oudomxay Thongsavath, Didier Labarre, and Alexander G. K. McWilliam 2020. Using Scat to Estimate Body Size in Crocodilians: Case Studies of the Siamese Crocodile and American Alligator with Practical Applications. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 15 (2): - get paper here
  • Ross, C.A.; Mayer, G.C.;Bour, R. 1995. Designation of a lectotype for Crocodilus siamensis Schneider, 1801 (Reptilia: Crocodylia). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 108 (2): 298-301 - get paper here
  • Schneider, JOHANN GOTTLOB 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommanni, Jena. 374 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1919. Crocodilus siamensis. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 3 (3): 217-221 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. et al. 2010. Natural history of Reintroduced and Natural Siamese Crocodile Populations: Implications for Protection and Conservation Breeding. WAZA News 3/10: 28-29
  • Sommerlad, R.; Schmidt, F. & Ziegler, T. 2011. Threatened crocodiles in European zoos? Reptilia (GB) ?: 12-17 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R.; Schmidt, F. & Ziegler, T. 2011. Bedrohte Krokodile in Europas zoologischen Gärten? Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 24-29 - get paper here
  • Takasaki, Ryuji; Yoshitsugu Kobayashi 2020. Stomach histology of Crocodylus siamensis and Gavialis gangeticus reveals analogy of archosaur “gizzards”, with implication on crocodylian gastroliths function. Acta Herpetologica 15 (2): 111-118 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T. 2020. “Dau Sau” - ein Rekordkrokodil aus Vietnam. Elaphe 2020 (2): 46-50
  • Ziegler, Thomas et al. 2015. REDISCOVERY OF THE SIAMESE CROCODILE (CROCODYLUS SIAMENSIS) IN KHAMMOUANE PROVINCE, CENTRAL LAO PDR. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 34 (3): 11-12
  • Zug, G.R. & Mulcahy, D.G. 2019. Identification guide Amphibians and reptiles of South Tanintharyi. Fauna & Flora International, 101 pp.
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