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Crocodylus siamensis SCHNEIDER, 1801

IUCN Red List - Crocodylus siamensis - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Siamese crocodile
G: Siamkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodylus siamensis SCHNEIDER 1801
Crocodilus galeatus CUVIER 1807: 51
Crocodilus galeatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 113
Crocodylus siamensis — KING & BURKE 1989
Crocodylus siamensis — COX et al. 1998: 123
Crocodylus siamensis — NGUYEN et al. 2009 
DistributionCambodia, Indonesia (including Borneo and possibly Java), Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Myanmar (= Burma).

Type locality: "Siam" (=Thailand), corrected to “Louvo, Siam (= Ayutthaya, Thailand” by ROSS et al. 1995.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesLectotype: iconotype, “the specimen whose head is figured on plate I of the 1688 Description anatomique...”, a publication by Anonymous 1688 and that is cited with a different title in ROSS et al. 1995 who also made this designation. paralectotypes: RMNH 21695 (skin), RMNH.RENA.7939 (skull, same specimen as 21695), SMF 8090 from Java (fide Ross 1992) 
Diagnosis 
CommentConservation: The species may, however, have disappeared in many of the listed areas (e.g. Malaysia and Indonesia).

Types: not located, but illustrations in Du Vernay 1733.

Hybridization: Crocodylus niloticus appears to hybridize with C. siamensis and C. porosus, at least in captivity. C. porosus also hybridizes with C. siamensis (Wei et al. 2022). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
References
  • Anonymous 1688. Observations physiques et mathématiques pour servir à l’Histoire naturelle e à la Perfection de l’Astronomieet de la Géographie [...]. Paris, chez la Veuve d’Edme Martin, Jean Boudot et Estienne Marin, vi + 8 pp. [cited in Ross et al. 1995: 30]
  • Bauer, A.M. & Lavilla, E.O. (eds.) 2021. J. G. Schneider’s Historiae Amphibiorum: Herpetology at the Dawn of the 19th Century. SSAR, 848 pp. - get paper here
  • Bezuijen, Mark R.; Jack H. Cox, John B. Thorbjarnarson, Chanthone Phothitay, Michael Hedemark, and Akchousanh Rasphone 2013. Status of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Schneider, 1801 (Reptilia: Crocodylia) in Laos. Journal of Herpetology Mar 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1: 41-65. - get paper here
  • Brazaitis, Peter 1973. The identification of Crocodylus siamensis Schneider. Zoologica 58 (1): 43-45 - get paper here
  • Chaeychomsri, W.; Tabthipwon, P.; Napavarn Noparatnaraporn and Voravit Siripholvat 2008. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 42: 256 - 262
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
  • Cox, J. H.; Frazier, R. S.; Maturbongs, R. A. 1993. Freshwater crocodiles of Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Copeia 1993 (2): 564-566 - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Cuvier, G. 1807. Sur les différentes especes de crocodiles vivans et sur leurs caracteres distinctifs. Ann. Natl. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 8-86. - get paper here
  • Du Vernay, M. 1733. Description anatomique de trois crocodiles avec les reflexions de M. Du Vernay. Memoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis 1666 jusqu'à 1699. 3 (2): 254-280
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Gramentz, D. 2010. Zum Schreckruf juveniler Crocodylus rhombifer CUVIER, 1807 und Crocodylus siamensis. Sauria 32 (3): 39-46 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Han S., Hor L., Nhek R., Sorn P., Heng S., Simpson, B., Starr, A., Brooke, S., Frechee, J.L. & Daltry, J.C. 2015. Status, distribution and ecology of the Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis in Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2015: 153–164 - get paper here
  • Ji, X.; Wu, X.; Yan, P. & Amato, G. 2008. Complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of Siamensis Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Mol Biol Rep (2008) 35:133–13
  • Ko Ko, Win, Khin Myo Myo, Lay Lay Khaing, Kalyar and Bill Holmstrom 2006. Crocodiles in Myanmar: Species diversity, historic accounts, and current population status and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1):77-89.
  • Mateus, O. 2001. The first direct observation of Crocodylus siamensis in Lao PDR in the last thirty years. Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (2): 253-256 - get paper here
  • Meganathan, P.R.; Bhawna Dubey, Mark A. Batzer, David A. Ray, Ikramul Haque 2010. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of genus Crocodylus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) and the taxonomic position of Crocodylus porosus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (1): 393-402 - get paper here
  • Meurer, A. 2015. Private Pflege und Nachzucht bedrohter Krokodile. Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (1): 66-74 - get paper here
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conservation Genetics. 10:935–954
  • Nadja Niemann 2011. Last refuge for the Siamese crocodile? Zooquaria (75): 29 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nguyen, Tham T.; Thomas Ziegler, Anna Rauhaus,Truong Q. Nguyen et al. 2018. GENETIC SCREENING OF SIAMESE CROCODILES (CROCODYLUS SIAMENSIS) IN LAOS AND VIETNAM: IDENTIFYING PUREBRED INDIVIDUALS FOR CONSERVATION AND RELEASE PROGRAMS. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 37 (3): 8-14
  • Nickel, H. & Auliya, M. 2004. Krokodile - faszinierende Überlebenskünstler. Draco 5 (20): 4-19 - get paper here
  • Pahl, Kristian Robert 2012. Die Wiederansiedlung des Siamkrokodils (Crocodylus siamensis) in Vietnam – ein zukunftsweisendes Projekt? Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (1): 56-60 - get paper here
  • PAN, TAO; JIA-SHUN MIAO, HUA-BIN ZHANG, PENG YAN, PING-SHIN LEE, XIN-YUE JIANG, JIA-HUI OUYANG, YOU-PENG DENG, BAO-WEI ZHANG & XIAO-BING WU. 2021. Near-complete phylogeny of extant Crocodylia (Reptilia) using mitogenome-based data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 191(4): 1075–1089. - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • PHUN, THORN; STEVEN G. PLATT, SITHA SOM & THOMAS R. RAINWATER. 2021. CROCODYLUS SIAMENSIS (Siamese Crocodile). ATTEMPTED PREDATION. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 400–401. - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40 - get paper here
  • PLATT, S. G., O. THONGSAVATH, C. D. HALLAM, AND T. R. RAINWATER 2020. Crocodylus siamensis (Siamese Crocodile). Nesting And Nest Attendance. Herpetological Review 51: 589-590.
  • Platt, Steven G., Heng Sovannara, Long Kheng, Bryan L. Stuart and Joseph Walston. 2006. Crocodylus siamensis along the Sre Ambel River, southern Cambodia: habitat, nesting, and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 9 (2): 183-188. :
  • Platt, Steven G.; Ruth M. Elsey, Nichole D. Bishop, Thomas R. Rainwater, Oudomxay Thongsavath, Didier Labarre, and Alexander G. K. McWilliam 2020. Using Scat to Estimate Body Size in Crocodilians: Case Studies of the Siamese Crocodile and American Alligator with Practical Applications. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 15 (2): - get paper here
  • Ross, C.A.; Mayer, G.C.;Bour, R. 1995. Designation of a lectotype for Crocodilus siamensis Schneider, 1801 (Reptilia: Crocodylia). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 108 (2): 298-301 - get paper here
  • Schneider, JOHANN GOTTLOB 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommanni, Jena. 374 pp. - get paper here
  • Sinovas, Pablo 2021. Stirb an einem anderen Tag: der andauernde Kampf gegen das Aussterben des Siam-Krokodils. Elaphe 2021 (5): 68-71
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  • Souvannasy, Paseun; Vinh Quang Luu et al. 2018. EVIDENCE OF ANOTHER OVERLOOKED SIAMESE CROCODILE (CROCODYLUS SIAMENSIS) POPULATION IN KHAMMOUANE PROVINCE, CENTRAL LAO PDR. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 37 (3): 6-8
  • Takasaki, Ryuji; Yoshitsugu Kobayashi 2020. Stomach histology of Crocodylus siamensis and Gavialis gangeticus reveals analogy of archosaur “gizzards”, with implication on crocodylian gastroliths function. Acta Herpetologica 15 (2): 111-118 - get paper here
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  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
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  • Ziegler, Thomas et al. 2015. REDISCOVERY OF THE SIAMESE CROCODILE (CROCODYLUS SIAMENSIS) IN KHAMMOUANE PROVINCE, CENTRAL LAO PDR. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 34 (3): 11-12
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