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Cyclura cornuta (BONNATERRE, 1789)

IUCN Red List - Cyclura cornuta - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCyclura cornuta cornuta (BONNATERRE 1789)
Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis COPE 1885 
Common NamesE: Rhinoceros Iguana, Hispaniolan Rhinoceros Iguana
G: Nashornleguan 
SynonymLacerta cornuta BONNATERRE 1789: 40
Iguana cornuta — LACÉPÈDE 1789
Metapoceros cornutus — WAGLER 1830
Iguana cornuta — CUVIER 1831: 133
Metopoceros [sic] cornutus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 211
Hypsilophus (Metapoceros) cornutus — FITZINGER 1843
Metopoceros [sic] cornutus — TYLER 1851: 494
Metopoceros cornutus — GÜNTHER 1882
Metopoceros cornutus — BOULENGER 1885: 188
Cyclura cornuta — COPE 1886: 263
Cyclura cornuta — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 391
Cyclura cornuta — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012

Cyclura cornuta cornuta (BONNATERRE 1789)
Cyclura cornuta cornuta — BARBOUR 1937
Cyclura cornuta cornuta — COCHRAN 1941
Cyclura cornuta cornuta — SCHWARTZ & CAREY 1977

Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis (COPE 1885)
C.[yclura] onchiopsis COPE 1885
C.[yclura] nigerrima COPE 1885: 188 (nom. nud.)
Cyclura onchiopsis — COPE 1886
Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis — SCHWARTZ & CAREY 1977
Cyclura onchiopsis — POWELL 1999
Cyclura onchiopsis — POWELL 2000
Cyclura onchiopsis — JOSEPH-OUNI 2007
Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis — LEMM & ALBERTS 2012
Cyclura onchiopsis — BUCKLEY et al. 2016
Cyclura onchiopsis — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionHispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti), Isla Beata, Ile de la Petite Gonave, Ile de la Tortue, Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile de la Petite Cayemite, Isla Saona, Isla Cabritos, Navassa, Isla Mona, Puerto Rico (USA, Florida)

cornuta: Hispaniola and satellites. Type locality: 'Sainte-Domingue ... dans les mornes de l'hôpital, entre l'Artibonite & les Gonaïves.

onchiopsis: Navassa Island. Type locality: "from an unknown locality." Restricted type locality: "Island of Navassa" (Cope 1886).  
TypesHolotype: Unlocated (Buckley et al. 2011)
Holotype: USNM 9974 [Cyclura nigerrima]
Syntypes: USNM 9977, USNM 12239, MCZ 4717 [onchiopsis] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 463 mm, in females to 510 mm); 3-5 scales (frontal + 1 or 2 pairs of prefrontals) enlarged on snout; 11-13 (mode 10) scale rows between frontal and interparietal; azygous scales between prefrontals absent; 8-17 (mode 13) scales between anterior canthal scales; 13-29 (mode 18) scales bordering frontal; first prefrontal never in contact with precanthal; no obvious rows of loreals; 10-16 (mode 12) suboculars to anterior border of tympanum; 6-18 (mode 12) sublabials to eye center; 3--6 (mode 4) rows of scales between infralabials and sublabials; 1-4 (mode 3) postmentals; 32-80 femoral pores in 1-3 (strongly modally 2) rows or partial rows; dorsal crest scales 14-25 between occiput and shoulder, 40-56 between shoulder and sacrum, 12-23 between sacrum and first caudal verticil, total dorsal crest scales between occiput and first caudal verticil 70-97; dorsal crest scales on neck never higher than body crest scales, body crest scales almost never higher than postsacral crest scales; 33-51 scales around tail in fifth caudal verticil; 13-44 dorsolateral body scales in naris-eye distance; rostral in contact with nasals or separated from them by 1-2 rows of scales; 3-7 (mode 4) scale rows between prefrontal scales. Dorsum patternless, dark gray, grayish brown, to black; juveniles very dark and virtually patternless but with about 9 vague and faint pale crossbars on sides, separated by dark gray areas (often series of gray blotches) extending onto venter; hindlimbs not ocellate (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 391). 
CommentConservation: Cyclura onchiopsis COPE 1885 is “undoubtedly” extinct (POWELL 2000). 
  • Alberts, A.C.; Carter, R.L.; Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (eds.) 2004. Iguanas - Biology and Conservation. University of California Press, 356 pp. - get paper here
  • Avery, D. F.; Tanner, W. W. 1971. Evolution of the iguanine lizards (Sauria, Iguanidae) as determined by osteological and myological characters. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 12 (3): 1-79
  • Barbour, T. and Noble, G.K. 1916. A revision of the lizards of the genus Cyclura. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 60 (4): 139-64. - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, . . . Erpétologie. Panckoucke, Paris, xxviii+71 pp. (+ plates + index) - get paper here
  • Boonman, John 2000. The Mona Island Iguana, Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri Barbour & Noble, 1916 Podarcis 1 (2): 33-35 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1890. On the distinctive cranial characters of the Iguanoid lizards allied to Iguana. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 6: 412-414 - get paper here
  • Buckley, L.J. et al. 2011. Iguanas of the world (Iguanidae; Iguaninae). IUCN ISG - get paper here
  • Buckley, Larry J.; Kevin de Queiroz, Tandora D. Grant, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, John B. Iverson (Chair, <br />Stesha A. Pasachnik, and Catherine L. Stephen (Iguana Taxonomy Working Group, ITWG 2016. A Checklist of the Iguanas of the World (Iguanidae; Iguaninae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. The large iguanas of the Greater Antilles. Amer. Nat. 19: 1005-1006
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. On the species of Iguaninae. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23 (122): 261-271 - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. 1831. The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith... and others. Vol. 9. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London, 481 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • García, Miguel A. and Glenn P. Gerber 2016. Conservation and Management of Cyclura Iguanas in Puerto Rico. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Geißler, L. 2008. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Halbinsel Barahona, Dominikanische Republik. Elaphe 16 (1): 48-52
  • Glor, R.E., R. Powell, and J.S. Parmerlee, Jr. 2000. Cyclura cornuta (Bonnaterre) Hispaniolan Rhinoceros Iguana. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (709): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1944. Cyclura stejnegeri: A Portrait. Herpetologica 2: 139-140 - get paper here
  • Günther, Albert 1882. Observations on some rare Reptiles and a Batrachian now or lately living in the Society's Menagerie. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 11 (7): 215-222, 5 plates (2 in color)
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Krysko, K.K.; Enge, K.M.; Donlan, E.M.; Golden, E.Z.; Burgess, J.P. & Larson, K.W. 2009. THE NON-MARINE HERPETOFAUNA OF KEY BISCAYNE, FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):132-142 - get paper here
  • Lemm, J.M. & Alberts, A.C. 2012. Cyclura. Elsevier / Academic Press, 221 pp.
  • Malone,C.L.; Wheeler,T.; Taylor, J.F. & Davis,S.K. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean Rock Iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 17 (2): 269 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1938. Amphibien und Reptilien aus Santo Domingo, gesammelt von Prof. Dr. H. Böker. Senckenbergiana 20 (5): 332-342
  • Noble, G.K. 1923. Trailing the rhinoceros iguana. Nat. Hist. 23 (6):541-558.
  • Pasachnik, Stesha Ann & Victor Martin-Velez 2017. An evaluation of the diet of Cyclura iguanas in the Dominican Republic. Herpetological Bulletin (140): - get paper here
  • Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor; Alberto M. Sabat, and W. Owen McMillan 2016. Nesting Migrations and Reproductive Biology of the Mona Rhinoceros Iguana, Cyclura stejnegeri. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Powell, R. 1999. Herpetology of Navassa Island, West Indies. Carib. J. Sci. 35: 1-13
  • Powell, R. 2000. Cyclura onchiopsis Cope Navassa Island Rhinoceros Iguana. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (710): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Powell, R. & Incháustegui, S.J. 2009. Conservation of the herpetofauna of the Dominican Republic. Applied Herpetology 6: 103–122 - get paper here
  • Powell, R. and R.E. Glor 2000. Cyclura stejnegeri Barbour and Noble Mona Island Rhinoceros Iguana. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (711): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert, José A. Ottenwalder, Sixto J. Incháustegui, Robert W. Henderson and Richard E. Glor. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of the Dominican Republic: Species of special concern. Oryx 34 (2): 118-128 - get paper here
  • Rosas, K.G.; Perez-Buitrago, N.; Acevedo, J.P.; Martinez, N.; Funk, S.M.; McMillan, W.O. 2008. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite loci for the Mona Island iguana (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri). Molecular Ecology Resources 8(4):825-827 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Thomas, Richard; Joglar, Rafael 1996. The herpetology of Puerto Rico: Past, present, and future. Ann New York Acad. Sci. 776: 181-200 - get paper here
  • Tyler, R.E. 1852. On the iguana of Sta Lucia, Metopoceros cornutus of Wagler. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 7: 494-494 - get paper here
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