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Cyrtodactylus cracens BATUWITA & BAHIR, 2005

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymCyrtodactylus cracens BATUWITA & BAHIR 2005
Cyrtodactylus subsolanus BATUWITA & BAHIR 2005 
DistributionSri Lanka

Type locality: Sinharaja World Heritage site, Ratnapura District (06°26’N, 80°25’E, elevation 450 m),

subsolanus: Sri Lanka; Type locality: in a cardamom plantation at Dolahena Estate, near Morningside Forest Reserve, adjacent to and east of the Sinharaja World Heritage Site, Ratnapura District (06°25’10”N, 80°36’30”E, elevation 850 m).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NMSL (= WHT) 6048, adult male (101.0 mm SVL), (partially regenerated tail broken at base)
Holotype: NMSL (= WHT) 5999, adult male (99.5 mm SVL), (a 10 mm portion removed from tail tip and preserved inethanol) [subsolanus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cyrtodactylus cracens is distinguished from allotherCyrtodactylus by a combination of the following characters: subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4th digit of manus, 7–9; beneath distal portion, 12–1; basal lamellae under proximal portion as wide as digit width.Subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4th digit of pes 8–9; beneath distal portion12–14; no precloacal groove; 5–6 precloacal pores in males; claws long (ClawLM/ForeaL ratio 0.10–0.12; ClawLP/ CrusL ratio 0.12–0.1); mental subtriangular. Scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds, 1. Dorsal scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds, 6–67. Tubercles on paravertebrabral row, 26–27. Seven to eight rows flatttened dorsal tubercles at mid-body. Ventral scales imbricate, with rounded posterior edges. From among the other Sri Lankan Cyrtodactylus, C. cracens most closely resembles C. subsolanus new species, from which it may be distinguished as follows: head narrow (HeadW/HeadL ratio 0.65), dorsal tubercles flattened and claws comparatively longer, vs.head wide (HeadW/ HeadL ratio0.71–0.72), dorsal tubercles raised and claws short in C.subsolanus.

Diagnosis (subsolanus). Cyrtodactylus subsolanus is distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following characters: subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4th digit of manus, 9–10; beneath distal portion, 12–1; basal lamellae under proximal portion as wide as digit width. Subdigital lamellae beneath proximal portion of 4th digit of pes, 8–10, beneath distal portion, 1–14; 1–4 fragmented basal lamellae beneath distal portion of each digit; no precloacal groove; 5 precloacal pores in males; claws long (ClawLM/ ForeaL ratio 0.11–0.12; ClawLP/ CrusLratio 0.12–0.15); mental subtriangular. Scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds, 0–2. Dorsal scales across mid-body between ventrolateral folds, 60–65. Tubercles on paravertebral row, 21–26 (tubercles absent on neck). Dorsal tubercles at mid-body in 6–8 rows. Ventral scales imbricate to subimbricate, imbricate on groin, with rounded posterior edges. Original tail shorter than body (TailL/ SVL ratiorange 0.9–0.96). Cyrtodactylus subsolanus resembles C. cracens new species and C. fraenatus. It may be distinguished from the latter by its indistinct dorsal pattern, vs. distinct dorsal pattern; and from former by having a broader head (HeadW/HeadL ratio 0.71–0.72) and raised dorsal tubercles, vs. narrower head (HeadW/HeadL ratio 0.65) and flattened dorsal tubercles; and also its comparatively short claws. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017).

Synonymy: Amarasinghe et al. 2022 synonymized Cyrtodactylus subsolanus with Cyrtodactylus cracens.
 
EtymologyCyrtodactylus subsolanus was named after Latin “subsolanus” for ‘eastern’, a reference to the restriction of this species to the eastern border of the Sinharaja World Heritage Site. 
References
  • Amarasinghe, A. A. Thasun; Suranjan Karunarathna, Patrick D. Campbell, A. K. Anusha Gayan, W. D. Bhanuka Ranasinghe, Anslem De Silva & Zeeshan A. Mirza 2022. The hidden diversity and inland radiation of Sri Lanka’s ground-dwelling geckos of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 20:1, 1-25, - get paper here
  • Batuwita, S. & M. M. Bahir 2005. Description of five new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. No. 12: 351-380 - get paper here
  • JANZEN, P. 2021. Morningside – ein herpetologisches Highlight Sri Lankas. Sauria 43 (1): 9-37 - get paper here
  • Janzen, Peter and Malaka Bopage 2011. The herpetofauna of a small and unprotected patch of tropical rainforest in Morningside, Sri Lanka. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 5 (2): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Karunarathna, D. M. S. S. and A. A. T. Amarasinghe 2012. Reptile diversity in Beraliya Mukalana proposed forest reserve, Galle District - Sri Lanka. Taprobanica 4 (1): 20-26 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. & Glaw, F. 2008. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Malaysia including a literature survey of mensural and meristic data in the genus. Zootaxa 1729: 8–22 - get paper here
  • Samarawickrama, V.A.M.P.K.; H.I.G.C. Kumara, D.R.N.S. Samarawickrama 2019. Diversity of Reptiles in the Eastern and Southern parts of the Sinharaja Rain Forest. Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment - get paper here
  • Somaweera, R. & Somaweera, N. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka: a colour guide with field keys. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 304 pp.
 
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