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Cyrtodactylus lateralis (WERNER, 1896)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Werner’s Prehensile-tailed Bent-toed Gecko, Sumatra Bow-fingered Gecko, Spiny Forest Gecko
G: Seitenstachel-Bogenfingergecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus lateralis WERNER 1896: 11
Gymnodactylus lateralis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 7
Cyrtodactylus lateralis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 223
Cyrtodactylus (Cyrtodactylus) lateralis — RÖSLER 2000: 66
Cyrtodactylus lateralis — TEYNIÉ et al. 2010 
DistributionWest Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra)

Type locality: Sumatra  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 12029 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large species of Cyrtodactylus reaching 100 mm SVL (LSUHC 12579) and distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) body robust; limbs and digits moderate in length; (2) tail prehensile; intact tails 0.97–1.22 times longer than body; (3) tubercles extending from frontal region and supraorbital skin to cover most of tail, 16–20 irregular longitudinal rows of tubercles at midbody, 21–28 irregular transverse rows between limbs; (4) dorsal antebrachium and brachium tuberculate; (5) tubercles on tail extending to 90% of its length; (6) 51–66 ventrals in a transverse row at midbody; (7) conical, spinose tubercles in ventrolateral fold; (8) subcaudals not transversely enlarged; (9) moderate longitudinal sulcus in precloacal region of males; (10) 9–13 precloacal pores in males (0–15) pore primordia in females), femoral pores absent, precloacal pores sunken into precloacal sulcus; pore secretions red; (11) greatly enlarged precloacal pore-bearing scales present; (12) ventral surface of thighs entirely granular or granular except for 2–13 (count combined for both sides) widely spaced enlarged femoral scales; (13) 18–24 lamellae under fourth toe; (14) cloacal tubercles 1–2 on each side, usually in contact with one another; (15) dorsum gray to brown with dark brown markings; venter pale pink, immaculate or with diffuse, darkly pigmented scales forming no obvious pattern; (16) labials pale, contrasting with darker facial band; occiput with few large blotches; postocular stripe brown, edged dorsally by thin black line then by pale pigmented scales; (17) 5–6 transverse, usually broken bands on body; 7–9 bands on tail; caudal bands complete ventrally though faint (Harvey et al. 2016).

Comparisons. Cyrtodactylus lateralis is very similar to C. durio. Cyrtodactylus lateralis has rounded to subpyramidal tubercles in the temporal region, on the occiput, and on the neck, whereas tubercles in these areas are noticeably larger and distinctly spinose in C. durio. We scored three new specimens of C. durio for the same characters used in the description of C. lateralis. Ranges of meristic and mensural characters of C. durio overlap those of C. lateralis, however extremes of three characters were slightly higher or lower than those of C. lateralis. The three specimens of C. durio (data for KU 173086 followed by KU 173087 then LSUHC 12579 vs. ranges [mean ± standard deviation, sample size] for C. lateralis) had slightly fewer tubercles at midbody (17, 15, and 15 vs 16–20 [18 ± 1, n = 13]), slightly fewer lamellae under finger IV (15, 17, and 17 vs. 16–20 [18 ± 1, n = 14]), and a slightly larger orbit (diameter of orbit 27.8%, 28.7%, and 26.5% of head length vs. 20.6–27.6% [25.4 ± 1.6, n = 16]) than the series of C. lateralis. All specimens of C. durio lack enlarged subfemoral scales, whereas 70% of C. lateralis had these scales.
Cyrtodactylus lateralis, C. brevipalmatus, C. durio, C. elok, and C. stresemanni are the only Sunda Shelf species with a spinose, prehensile tail. Unlike C. stresemanni (characters in parentheses), C. lateralis has 16–20 tubercles across midbody (13), a transversely banded dorsum (wide, dark brown chevrons on flanks separated by undulating pale vertebral stripe), and small irregular blotches on the occiput (large, dark triangular occipital mark). Unlike C. brevipalmatus and C. elok, C. lateralis has a precloacal sulcus (absent), spinose tubercles in the ventrolateral fold (tubercles absent from fold), 51–66 ventrals (35–49), and caudal whorls of six tubercles separated by granular scales ventrolaterally (caudal whorls of four tubercles; ventrolateral tubercles separated by lanceolate scales forming ventrolateral fringe, Harvey et la. 2016). 
CommentDistribution: See map in Harvey et al. 2016: 526 (Fig. 5). 
  • Grismer L. Lee 2005. New species of Bent-toed Gecko (Cyrtodactylus Gray 1827) from Pulau Aur, Johor, West Malaysia. Journal of Herpetology 39 (3):424-432. - get paper here
  • Grismer L. Lee & Leong, T.M. 2005. New Species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Southern Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 584-591 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee & Ahmad, N. 2008. A new insular species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1924: 53–68 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn; Grismer, J.L.; Wood, P.L. & Belabut, D. 2008. Three new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1921: 1–23 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Perry L. Wood, Jr. and Kelvin K. P. Lim 2012. Cyrtodactylus majulah, a new species of bent-toed gecko (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Singapore and the Riau Archipelago. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60 (2): 487-499 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Wood, P.L. & Youmans, T.M. 2007. Redescription of the gekkonid lizard Cyrtodactylus sworderi (SMITH 1925) from Southern Peninsular Malaysia. Hamadryad 31 (2): 250-257 - get paper here
  • HARTMANN, LUKAS; SVEN MECKE, MAX KIECKBUSCH, FELIX MADER, HINRICH KAISER 2016. A new species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from Jawa Timur Province, Java, Indonesia, with taxonomic remarks on C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). Zootaxa 4067 (5): 552–568 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; KYLE A. O’CONNELL, ELIJAH WOSTL, AWAL RIYANTO, NIA KURNIAWAN, ERIC N. SMITH, L. LEE GRISMER 2016. Redescription Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and Phylogeny of the Prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus. Zootaxa 4107 (4): 517-540 - get paper here
  • Linkem, Charles W.; Jimmy A. McGuire, Christopher J. Hayden, Mohammed Iqbal Setiadi, David P. Bickford, and Rafe M. Brown 2008. A New Species of Bent-Toe Gecko (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Sulawesi Island, Eastern Indonesia. Herpetologica 64 (2): 224-234 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • MECKE, SVEN; MAX KIECKBUSCH, LUKAS HARTMANN, HINRICH KAISER 2016. Historical considerations and comments on the type series of Cyrtodactylus marmoratus Gray, 1831, with an updated comparative table for the bent-toed geckos of the Sunda Islands and Sulawesi. Zootaxa 4175 (4): 353–365 - get paper here
  • Onn, Chan Kin & Norhayati Ahmad 2010. A new insular species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northeastern Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. Zootaxa 2389: 47–56 - get paper here
  • O’Connell, K. A., Smart, U., Sidik, I., Riyanto, A., Kurniawan, N., & Smith, E. N. 2019. Diversification of bent-toed geckos (Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 134, 1–11 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, H. & Glaw, F. 2008. A new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Malaysia including a literature survey of mensural and meristic data in the genus. Zootaxa 1729: 8–22 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Welton, L.J, Siler, C.D., Diesmos, A.C. & Brown, R.M. 2010. Phylogeny-based species delimitation of southern Philippines bent-toed geckos and a new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Zootaxa 2390: 49–68 - get paper here
  • Welton, Luke J.; Cameron D. Siler, Arvin Diesmos, and Rafe M. Brown 2009. A NEW BENT-TOED GECKO (GENUS CYRTODACTYLUS) FROM SOUTHERN PALAWAN ISLAND, PHILIPPINES AND CLARIFICATION OF THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF C. ANNULATUS. Herpetologica 65 (3): 328-343 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1896. Zweiter Beitrag zur Herpetologie der indo-orientalischen Region. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 46: 6-24 - get paper here
  • Youmans, Timothy M. & L. Lee Grismer 2006. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1): 61-70
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