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Cyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, HERR, LIN & KYAW, 2018

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymCyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, HERR, LIN & KYAW 2018 
DistributionMyanmar (Kayin: Hpa-an District)

Type locality: Naung Ka Yaing Hill, 17 km north-east of Hpa-an, Hpa-an District, Kayin State, Myanmar (17.01558°N, 97.70641°E; 14 m in elevation.  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 13209, Adult male, collected on 8 May 2017 at 2000 hrs by Myint Kyaw Thura, Mark W. Herr, L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Matthew L. Murdoch, Evan S.H. Quah, and Htet Kyaw. Paratypes: Adult male LSUHC 13208 and juvenile LSUHC 13207 bear the same collecting data as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having the unique combination of maximum SVL 66.9 mm; eight or nine supralabials; seven infralabials; 34 or 35 paravertebral tubercles; 16–18 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 27 longitudinal rows of ventral scales; relatively long digits with seven expanded subdigital lamellae proximal to the digital inflexion on the fourth toe, 11 or 12 unmodified distal subdigital lamellae, 18–19 total subdigital lamellae; raised, moderately keeled, dorsal body tuber- cles in adults; tubercles extending beyond base of tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales continuous; enlarged proximal femoral scales less than one-half the size of enlarged distal femoral scales; 30–35 enlarged femoral scales; 11 femoral pores in males; three or four precloacal pores in males; pore-bearing femoral and precloacal scales discontinuous; 8–12 enlarged precloacal scales; three rows of enlarged post- precloacal scales; medial subcaudal scales 3 times as wide as long, extending onto lateral surface of tail; top of head mottled in adults, no yellow reticulum; nuchal loop not divided medially, no pronounced anterior azygous notch, posterior border jagged; four jagged, dark, dorsal bands with lightened centres bearing paravertebral elements, narrower than interspaces, not edged with white tubercles; nape band variably present; dark markings in dorsal interspaces; ventrolateral folds not whitish; anterodorsal margins of thighs and brachia not pigmented; 11 light-coloured caudal bands bearing dark markings, not encircling tail; 10 dark caudal bands wider than light caudal bands; and mature regenerated tail not spotted. These characters are scored against all other species in the sinyineensis group in Table 4 and all other species of the Indochinese clade in Grismer et al. (2017a, table 8).

Variation (Figures 13 and 14): The paratypes generally resemble the holotype in aspects of colouration and pattern. The body bands on adult male LSUHC 13208 are not as bold as the holotype and the interspace mottling is less evident. The posterior one-half of the tail of LSUHC 13208 is regenerated and dark with light mottling. The interspace areas of the dorsal pattern of the juvenile LSUHC 13207 are more clear and much less mottled. LSUHC 13207 has a broken tail with only slight regeneration. Additional variation in meristic and mensural characters is presented in Table 9.

Comparisons: The PCA analysis indicates that Cyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis sp. nov. is completely separate in morphospace from C. bayinnyinensis sp. nov., C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. and C. dammathetensis. Although it overlaps C. sinyineensis and C. welpyanensis along PC1 and PC2, it is completely separated from them in the DAPC and along PC3 which loads most heavily for fourth toe lamellae and accounts for 11% of the total variation (Figure 3; Table 6). Differences between C. naungkayaingensis sp. nov. and C. bayinnyiensis sp. nov. and C. chaunghanakwaensis sp. nov. are presented above in the comparison sections for those species. Cyrtodactylus naungkayaingensis sp. nov. differs from all other species in the sinyineensis group by having dorsal bands that are narrower rather than wider than the interspaces. It differs further from C. aequalis, C. sinyineenensis and C. welpyanensis in that the median subcaudal scales extend onto the lateral surface of the tail as opposed to being confined to the subcaudal region. It differs from C. sinyineenensis and C. welpyanensis in that the dorsal bands have, as opposed to lack, paravertebral elements. It differs from C. aequalis and C. sinyineensis by having a much smaller maximum SVL (66.9 mm vs 87.0–91.6 mm, collectively). Additional non- meristic differences between varying combinations of species in the sinyineenis group are illustrated in Table 4. The phylogenetic analyses recover Cyrtodactylus naungkayain- genis sp. nov. as the sister species of the C. aequalis-C. bayinnyiensis sp. nov. lineage (Figure 6). It differs from C. aequalis by having significantly (p < 0.05) different mean values of dorsal body bands, enlarged femoral scales, and ventral scales, and from C. bayinnyiensis sp. by having significantly different mean values of dorsal body bands, enlarged femoral scales, post-precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles, total fourth toe lamellae, expanded fourth toe lamellae, and precloacal pores (Tables 4 and 7). Table 7 lists additional characters whose mean values differ significantly from those of other species of the sinyineensis group. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, naungkayaingensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Naung Ka Yaing Hill. 
  • CHOMDEJ, S., SUWANNAPOOM, C., PAWANGKHANANT, P., PRADIT, W., NAZAROV, R. A., GRISMER, L. L., & POYARKOV, N. A. 2020. A new species Cyrtodactytlus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from western Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. inthanon and C. doisuthep. Zootaxa 4838 (2): 179-209 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Perry L. Wood Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Evan S.H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Aung Lin & Htet Kyaw 2018. Three more new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar underscore the urgent need for the conservation of karst habitats. Journal of Natural History, 52:19-20, 1243-1294 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S.H. QUAH, MARTA S. GRISMER, MYINT KYAW<br />THURA, JAMIE R. OAKS & AUNG LIN 2020. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a karstic archipelago in the Salween Basin of southern Myanmar (Burma). Zootaxa 4718 (2): 151–183 - get paper here
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