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Diplodactylus bilybara COUPER, PEPPER & OLIVER, 2014

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Higher TaxaDiplodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Western Fat-tailed Gecko 
SynonymDiplodactylus bilybara COUPER, PEPPER & OLIVER in OLIVER et al. 2014 
DistributionAustralia (W Western Australia)

Type locality: 21 km S Barradale (22° 55’ S, 114° 46’E) WA  
TypesHolotype: WAM R174500 (formerly SAMA R22820). Paratypes. WAM R132531-32, Burrup Peninsula (20° 40’ 36” S, 116° 45’ 08” E) WA; WAM R132529, Burrup Peninsula (20° 40’ 49” S, 116° 44’ 37” E) WA; WAM R110058, 3.5km S Kar- ratha (20° 46’ 04” S, 116° 50’ 31” E) WA; WAM R110027, 6km S Karratha (20° 47’ 40” S, 116° 51’ 24” E) WA; WAM R165155, 8.5km WSW Yanyare River mouth (20° 50’ 40” S 116° 22’ 02” E) WA; WAM R159892, WAM R159894, WAM R159940, WAMR159947, 10km S Mallina homestead (20° 58’ 10” S, 118° 02’ 54” E) WA; WAM R165177, 9.5km ESE Marda Pool (21° 03’ 47” S, 116° 14’ 00” E) WA; WAM R110182, WAM R110218, WAM R110220, 12.5km SW Millstream (21° 40’ 37” S, 116° 58’ 30” E) WA; WAM R134523, 8km N Exmouth (21° 52’ 12” S, 114° 07’ 01” E) WA; WAM R110148, 8km S Coolawanyah (21° 52’ 55” S, 117° 47’ 40” E) WA; WAM R163018, 7km SSE Mount Minnie (22° 10’ 10” S, 115° 33’ 39” E) WA; WAM R162059, 19.5km SSW Mount Amy (22° 25’ 09” S, 115° 50’ 16” E) WA; WAM R162052-53 21km SSE Mount Amy (22° 26’ 05” S, 115° 55’ 49” E) WA; WAM R158331, WAM R159932, Giralia homestead (22° 41’ 38” S, 114° 23’ 28” E) WA; SAMA R22905, 6km S Barradale (22° 52’ S, 114° 52’ E) WA; SAMA R22818, 11km S Barradale (22° 52’ 30” S, 114° 50’ E) WA; SAMA R22819, 9km S Barradale (22° 53’ S,114° 52’ E) WA; SAMA R22821 21km S Barradale (22° 55’ S, 114° 46’E) WA; AMS R165713, Jack Hills (26° 03’ 24” S, 117° 12’ 58” E) WA. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large member of the D. conspicillatus group (max SVL 63 mm) with a well-de- fined canthal stripe and a greatly enlarged first supralabial (first supralabial contacts ventral edge of nasal scale). Dorsal scales on trunk plate-like and markedly larger than smaller dorso- laterals. Scales on nape granular and only slightly larger than granules on side of neck. Original tail with a short to moderate, acute attenuated extension at tip; scales on dorsal surface of tail arranged in transverse rows (often in a pattern of one large row followed by two small rows; scales in the small rows * 1⁄4 the size of the scales in the adjacent large rows. Pattern variable; reticulated or with obscure transverse bands and generally incorporating numerous small pale spots. Dark pigment on crown and snout contrast markedly with pale canthal stripe and lower jaw colour which extends posteriorly as a pale bar towards the ear opening.

Comparison. Diplodactylus bilybara sp. nov. is readily distinguished from D. platyurus in possessing an enlarged first supralabial that contacts the ventral edge of the nasal scale (vs 1st supralabial small and not differentiated from the rest of the supralabial row). It is distinguished from D. conspicillatus, D. hillii and D. barraganae sp. nov. by the shape of its original tail (tail with short to moderate, acute attenuated extension at tip in D. bilybara sp. nov. vs tail blunt, spade-like without an attenuated tip). It is distinguished from D. laevis by the condition of the scales on the nape and top of head (scales granular and not appreciably larger than those on sides of neck in D. bilybara sp. nov. vs scales plate-like, appreciably larger than those on the sides of the neck). D. bilybara sp. nov. is most like D. custos sp. nov. but differs from this spe- cies in the following respects: distal half of original tail with alternating rows of large and small scales (generally 1 large row followed by 2 small rows)—scales in the small rows * 1⁄4 the size of the scales in the adjacent large rows vs tail scalation generally more uniform; if smaller scale rows present, these rarely form a double row and the small scales are * 1⁄2 the size of the scales in the adjacent large rows for D. custos sp. nov.; dark pigment on crown and snout contrast markedly with pale canthal stripe and lower jaw colour which extends posteriorly towards the ear as a pale bar vs dark pigment on crown and snout generally not contrasting sharply with pale canthal stripe and lower jaw colour for D. custos sp. nov., trunk heavily pigmented and pattern usually incorporating numerous small pale spots vs body pattern often diffuse and gen- erally without numerous pale spots, usually with wavy, dark transverse bands across back for D. custos sp. nov. [OLIVER et al. 2014]. 
CommentDistribution: see map in OLIVER et al. 2014 (Fig. 3). 
EtymologyThe name refers to the Pilbara region where this species occurs. The name Pilbara is said to be derived from the Aboriginal word bilybara, meaning 'dry' in the languages of the Nyamal and Banyjima people. 
  • Ellis, Ryan J.; Paul Doughty and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. An annotated type catalogue of the geckos and pygopods (Squamata: Gekkota: Carphodactylidae, Diplodactylidae, Gekkonidae, Pygopodidae) in the collection of the Western Australian Museum. Records of the Western Australian Museum 33: 051–094 - get paper here
  • Oliver PM, Couper PJ, Pepper M 2014. Independent Transitions between Monsoonal and Arid Biomes Revealed by Systematic Revison of a Complex of Australian Geckos (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae). PLoS One 9 (12): e111895. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111895 - get paper here
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